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The Confederation Era



The span of Terran Confederation represents the explosion of Humanity onto the interstellar scene.  In a little more than a century, Humanity experienced a golden age of exploration, first contact with intelligent technological species, an epic war against the M'kkiae, and rapid settlement of more than a hundred systems within a hundred light years of Sol.  Though the Confederation era ended in destructive fractious warfare, it paved the way for Humanity to become a diverse interstellar species.  Advancing through macrojump and into early microjump technological eras, Confederation Humans expanded into an area of space abandoned by the Grand Federation since the Heshar Fall.  United again, first tentatively, then solidly in response to the external threat, Humanity faced its most critical challenge in its war with the M'kkiae and in that conflict, Humanity gained persistent reputations both as destroyers and liberators. 

The first few decades of the period represented the golden age of exploration, as captains like Viggo Turki and Tomas Johannessen explored worlds that were once blurry bundles of pixels on telescope arrays, discovering prime colonization territories, making first contact with intelligent species and driving deep into unexplored space to visit giant and even neutron stars.  Contact with the Alimeen had a profound effect on Human society and eventually unearthed details about the now diminished Grand Federation of Races, solving the mysteries of the Obelisks and the Beta Coman ruins.

An enduring theme of the early Confederation was the continuing struggle against the few Easterner remnants aboard their Battlestar, who after fleeing Libertas, established a colony on the Class W world of Vulcan at Epsilon Eridani and continued on to Amaterasu at 82 Eridani.  The small interstellar settlements on Atlantis and Libertas, buoyed by their technological superiority, fought and defeated the Vulcan Easterners in 2231CE.  After attacks on Confederation and Libertine vessels at 82 Eridani, the Confederation launched its first joint interstellar military expedition, with mixed results, in the Amaterasu War of 2243-2244CE.

The escape of macrojump-equipped Easterners from Amaterasu led directly to their encounter with M'kkiae scouts and the eventual start of the M'kkiae War in 2251CE.  The conflict pitting the M'kkiae against Humans and their Alimeen allies was a pivotal struggle, forcing greater Human unity, determination and technological advancement.  After the climatic Battle of Sirius in 2259CE and the subsequent deployment of the first Hellking planet busters, the Confederation defeated the M'kkiae, destroying their homeworld in the final Battle of M'kkia in 2262CE, an act that exterminated the M'kkia race.  The Confederation also liberated the Khzraut, though the chlorine breathers' newfound freedom was soon tarnished by civil strife.

After the war, surplus vessels and a wide open frontier encouraged interstellar colonization, and over a dozen worlds were settled before 2300CE.  In the 24th century, growing political pressures and lowered costs of interstellar travel prompted a massive increase in colonization efforts, with four new colony worlds established every year after 2317CE.  Ultimately, Humanity colonized 139 worlds in 137 systems by the start of the Secession War in 2335CE.  Though less than six million Humans lived beyond the Solar system in 2335CE and and almost ninety-nine of a hundred still lived on Terra itself, the Confederation had become a true interstellar society.

The origins of the Secession War lay in the repressive compromises of Confederation and old Commonwealth institutions and in a failure of economic polices to adapt to the conditions of a shrinking demand for labor, exacerbated by a dramatic increase in Citizen life expectancies.  Pressures from both Reformist and Religionist fronts, reinforced by repeated economic shocks, destabilized the Confederate government and eventually polarized opinion to the point where compromise was impossible.  Twenty years of warfare saw the slow unraveling of Confederation civilization in a two-phased conflict with the conservative Loyalists eventually defeated by the Reformist and Religionist Rebels, who then turned on each other in 2343CE, sealing the fate of civilization as warfare spiraled to an exhausted halt.  With two and a half billion dead, the Secession War killed nearly a third of the Human population, more in both absolute and relative terms than the Last World War, and it initiated a dark age that persisted for centuries.


The Confederation Constitution of 2206CE established a Grand Senate invested with all Executive, Legislative and Judicial authority for Confederation affairs, which initially did not impact the internal politics or economies of its constituent members.  Elected every five years, the Grand Senate originally had twenty-five members, eleven from Terra and two from each colonial member state, including a pair elected in trust for Venus.  The Grand Senate did not have the power of direct taxation until the Constitutional Reform of 2248CE allowed it to collect a value added tax (VAT) on all goods and services transactions within and between its members.  The 2248CE Constitution also added Grand Senators from the newer colonies, originally just Paradise and Kalmar (Vulcan and Amaterasu remained Confederation dependencies until after the M'kkiae War) and six Grand Senators from the subjovian Alimeen, who joined as the Confederation as full members.  Further postwar modifications in 2264CE added more Grand Senators from all worlds plus six for the Khzraut, a situation that lasted only until 2284CE, when the Grand Senate took its final form, with fifty-one Grand Senators, five from the Alimeen, twenty-one from Terra, fifteen from the Solar colonies, and ten representing various interstellar colonies, mostly Atlantis and Libertas, who held three seats each.

The politics of the Confederation were often seen as a struggle between the conservatives of Terra and the liberals of the Solar and interstellar colonies with a Terran United Religious Party wildcard arising during the 24th century to further polarize the Grand Senate and cause the eventual constitutional crisis that precipitated the Secession War.  To a great extent, this is an oversimplification.  By design, Terra never held a majority of Grand Senate seats and it always elected a few Liberal or Reformist senators.  Also, the NEAR colonies and Luna each always elected at least one right-wing Grand Senator.  By the time of the final crisis, both Terran and off world members had adherents representing the various factions of the final struggle, a factor that contributed to the widespread devastating warfare.

Conservative forces were concerned with maintaining the homogenous status quo of the old Terran Commonwealth and saw diversity, disorder and variations from the established social pattern as dangerous to the unity of Humanity.  As many Conservative, Horizon and Order Prosperity Party leaders had lived through the Last World War, they understood the dangers of nationalism and extremism, and though they often acted to support their vested interests, the honest politicians, at least, also acted with the belief that their policies would best keep the peace.

The traditional Liberal movement, which eventually evolved into the Reformed Party, was more often supported by younger and less wealthy Citizens, those who saw the homogeneity and subtle repression of Confederation society, especially on Terra, as stifling, unfair and ultimately destructive to the Human spirit.  As such, they constituted many of the explorers and colonists who set out to build new worlds, but they also represented a growing portion of underemployed Citizens on Terra itself.  Donnerist economic theory, which was as much scientific sociology as pure economics, recognized the problem of Citizen unemployment and Resident wastrels, but proved better able to predict results than to provide remedies.

The United Religious Party does in some measure deserve the title of wildcard in the eventual demise of the Confederation.  The growth of religious extremism was a direct result of billions of idle Humans and a direct reaction to specifically Horizon and Order Prosperity Party policies of strict secularization.  Moslems, Christians, Hindus and Jews could agree on little other than that their beliefs were being publicly ridiculed and legally restricted.  When August Timmins proclaimed the United Religious Party unconstitutional in 2335CE, he was probably on firm legal ground, but by enraging over two billion believers, he made unlikely allies of the Reformists and Religionists and effectively shattered the Confederation. 


After a shaky start under the restrictions of the Comparative Advantage Amendment, a crutch that preserved the Atlantian macrojump drive monopoly until its repeal in 2233CE, technological progress was rapid during the Confederation Era, propelled by the optimism of the age of exploration and the urgency of the M'kkiae War.  Although conservative pressures limited the full potential of non-medical biological technologies, both starship and weapons technologies progressed rapidly, with most aspects of early microjump technology dominant on Terra and more established colonies by the Secession War.  A brief flirtation with fully sentient robots during the heat of the M'kkiae War produced mixed results, and machine intelligences of all kinds remained restricted, except on Atlantis.

The continued increase in lifespan had profound cultural and economic effects during the Confederation, though Donner's analyses were not fully accepted at the time, but the most lasting bio-technological impact was the development and commercialization of Life Therapy in the 24th century.  Before the last Life Therapy centers failed, over one hundred million individuals had undergone Life Therapy, and they formed the initial generation of the Homo Nobilis who would rule much of Human society in the coming millennia.

In higher levels of society, excellent health care, rapid fabrication and rich data environments combined to provide a near utopian (later termed as near Post-Material) lifestyle with prospects of effective immortality becoming more than a mere fiction by the turn of the century.

Interstellar exploration, conflict, settlement and commerce became prominent as macrojump and then microjump vessels extended the Human settlement sphere out to one hundred light years from Sol, with tentative exploratory mission venturing twice that distance.  The development of hyper-string pseudo-gravity (HSPG) thrusters and dark energy vacuum distillation freed spacecraft from the restraints of fuel load, allowing great leaps in performance and capacity.


The homogenization of Human culture dominated Terra and many NEAR and Lunar settlements during the early half of the Confederation's history.  The adaptation of neo-utilitarianist body modifications and dress in imitation of early macrojump explorers (who practiced defoliation and wore self-cleaning bodysuits to help deal with the rigors of early interstellar travel) served to further characterize early Confederation society as composed of "drones".

The inevitable youth reaction, coupled with revulsion at the Easterner clone underclass on Vulcan and Amaterasu, led to the flamboyant hair styles, dress and body modifications that marked the "renaissance" movement from the late 2230s until the mid 2260s.  After the M'kkiae War, styles moderated considerably and began to reflect growing calls for diversity on Terra, with ancient regional dress a basis (if often only remotely) for fashion.

The lack of useful work for upwards of 70-80% of the Terran population and the growing generally conservative centarian, bicentarian and even tricentarian retiree population led to real social unrest by the mid 2270s, resulting not only in the establishment of the Reformed and Order Prosperity Parties among the Citizen class, but also in increased regionalism, spiritualism and mysticism among the Resident class.  Some of these cultish subcultures manifested themselves in specialized interstellar colonies, which accounted for over fifty settled worlds, but others just fed unrest, especially among the underclass in Terra's arcologies.  Government attempts to encourage "plugged-in" virtual experiences as a social outlet met with limited success, as these virtual environments often acted as recruiting grounds for extremist movements.

The return of organized religion, both traditional and "neo-spiritual" marked the end of the 23rd and early 24th centuries.  Often running afoul of local restrictions, Terra congregations grew in numbers and influence, eventually forming the United Religious Party in 2304CE as an umbrella organization to press for greater religious freedoms, including the rights to publicly worship and proselytize. 

Chronology Table

2206 The Confederation Era begins. Negotiators at Shackleton Station establish the Terran Confederation.  The eight member states maintain total internal autonomy and their own armed forces.  The only powers of the Confederation concern the maintenance of trade and a common currency, immigration, relations with outside powers, and an interplanetary justice system.  Atlantis keeps its monopoly on macrojump technology after forcing through the Comparative Advantage Amendment.  Venus is held in trust by the four members of the now disbanded Colonial Confederation pending completion of the terraformation.  The Colonial Industrial Commission retains control of the Kuiper and Oort regions, but cedes Pluto and Charon to the Confederation as research reservations.  Atlantis begins construction of a new class of starships.  The Zeus and Chronos ramscoops set out for Delta Pavonis each with one thousand sleeper colonists and a rotating crew of one hundred twenty working five-year shifts.  The Drake explorers Fomalhaut and Vega.  The Magellan discovers a chlorine-based ecosystem on Medusa in the 72 Hercules system; the Drake rescues the Magellan after its last ignition chamber burns out at Barnard's Star during its return voyage.  The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Paradise.  Easterner colonists on Vulcan begin producing rapid-growth clones to vastly expand the population.
2207 All members ratify the Confederation Constitution.  The old CSEA complex at Copernicus on Luna becomes the site of the Confederation administrative headquarters.  The Drake discovers Osiris at 61 Ursa Majoris and surveys ruins on the world Enigma in the 10 billion year old Groombridge 1830 system and the 47 Ursa Majoris system.  The Magellan conducts a detailed survey of Kalmar and the Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Medusa.
2208 Atlantis assigns the Magellan to aid in diplomatic shuttle missions.  The Drake discovers Thor at 59 Virginis and continues on to 70 Virginis and Tau Bootes.  Adverse reaction to the elevated status of the colonies strengthens the Horizon Party on Terra.  The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Aphrodite.  Tor McKnight, future King of Kalmar, is born on Atlantis.
2209 To provide for travel to and from Proxima, Atlantis leases the Gaea from CSEA in return for crew assignments on exploratory vessels.  The Drake delivers an archeological team to Egaeus (Beta Coma Berenices III) and continues contact with the Comans.  The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Cyclops.
2210 The Confederation holds its first elections. The Grand Senate comes under the control of a right-wing coalition lead by the Horizon Party.  James McKnight and Viggo Turki serve as Senators from Atlantis; Yatindra Gupta reluctantly serves as a Martian Senator.  Terra regains the lead in Solar affairs.  The Gaea sets out for Atlantis with a crew of thirty and eleven hundred mostly Martian and Belter colonists.  Atlantis launches the Einstein, the first 13m starship; Captain Tomas Johannessen leads its crew of eight on a deep penetration mission to Pollux, Capella and Aldebaran.  The Drake discovers Apollo and Utopia.  The Gagarin surveys Enigma at Groombridge 1830, detailing seven separate twenty million year old installations.
2211 The Grand Senate votes to avoid interference with the development of the Comans.  The first attempt to establish a Confederation exploratory service fails.  The Charon Research Lab begins a massive expansion under Confederation authority.  The Einstein and Drake place a staffed research outpost on Beta Comae III and robotic monitors on Beta Comae IV.  Later, The Einstein discovers Odin and the Drake discovers Artemis.  The Gagarin spends months surveying Delphi.  A consortium on Vesta duplicates Atlantis's high thrust fusion drive, though Atlantian drives prove more efficient.
2212 Martian medical labs on Deimos perfect reanimation techniques that restore full mental function up to a day after death.  The Byzantium and Zurich stock exchanges crash in response to fears that Terra has permanently lost its competitiveness in technological development and a severe Solar System-wide recession begins.  The Einstein discovers Thebes en route to Canopus.  Atlantis establishes a staffed outpost on Paradise to evaluate possible colonization while the Gagarin performs a second survey of the entire Chara system.  The Drake discovers Prometheus.  August Timmins is born in Austin, Texas.
2213 The Einstein travels to Achernar, discovering the nearly Terran compatible Class A world of Eden en route.  The Drake conducts shuttle service between Atlantis, Sol and the outposts at BCB and Paradise.  The Gagarin conducts a survey of Thor.
2214 Atlantis launches the Newton, equipped for multi-system survey missions; it discovers Hercules on its first mission.  The Einstein explores several white dwarf systems during an expedition to Regulus.  The Drake begins conducting routine surveys of solar systems in addition to its BCB to Paradise route.  The Gagarin surveys Eden with an eye toward colonization.
2215 Confederation elections show little change in the make-up of the Grand Senate, though the Horizon Party continues to win strength at the expense of the Conservatives.  The Einstein explores several systems, discovering Horizon and Helicon.  At Oracle, the Newton discovers the Quadrons, a stone age sentient race living among ruins of an earlier industrial civilization.  The Gagarin surveys Apollo.
2216 The Newton notes the Easterner colony on Vulcan; Atlantis announces the finding to the Confederation, which takes no action.  The Drake and Gagarin shut down the survey base on Paradise and place a new base on Kalmar.  Terran scientists perfect the hyper-string pseudo-gravity (HSPG) thruster, an engine which allows for reactionless thrust without perceived acceleration.  An expedition by the Einstein first visits Tripoli and Champa.
2217 The Einstein departs on an expedition to the nearest neutron star GRN-014, nearly 200 light years from Sol.  The Gagarin conducts a survey on Oracle and uncovers the a Quadron semi-subterranean early-industrial culture; after the deaths of two crew members, the Gagarin departs; Oracle is placed under provisional  quarentine.  Scientists at CERN on Terra discover that an HSPG thruster in a "gravstar" configuration can effectively accelerate past light speed.  Viggo Turki becomes president of Atlantis.
2218 The Einstein returns from the GRN-014 Expedition and begins an extensive overhaul to repair radiation damage.  Captain Johannessen retires from exploratory duty.  The Gagarin conducts a survey of Utopia.  The Newton discovers Avalon and Ishtar.  The Galileo enters service as a diplomatic shuttle.  The Atlantian Republic approves funding for a class of 30m starships.  The Drake conducts a covert mission to observe the Easterners on Vulcan.
2219 The era of early deep exploration ends, as the Drake, Einstein and Newton begin to focus on routine exploratory surveys. The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Artemis and the Maxwell enters service as an additional survey vessel.  The Terran navy launches its HSPG gravstar ship, the Pride of Terra with a crew of twenty commanded by Captain Aaron Timmins, Duke of Texas; the ship begins a voyage to Atlantis at 2g, breaking the light barrier after six months.  Atlantis begins converting the Cityship Voyager into a massive orbital factory.
2220 The Horizon Party continues to gain strength on Terra, again dominating the right-wing coalition in the Grand Senate.  Tomas Johannessen becomes one of the Senators from Atlantis.  The Wexler enters service as a diplomatic shuttle, replacing the Cabral, which is retired at Atlantis.  Atlantian scientists develop macro-molecular materials.  The Einstein discovers Daedalus and the Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Odin.
2221 The Pride of Terra reaches Atlantis after a two and a half year voyage.  The Starship Rheyes enters service on Atlantis in a ceremony also marking the decommissioning of the Drake.  The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Prometheus.
2222 Atlantian scientists duplicate HSPG technology and begin incorporating the technology into their 30m starship project.  The Magellan is decommissioned.  The Maxwell discovers the mechanistic culture of the Lagrush on a gas giant moon in the Orion Sector.  Libertas begins converting its orbiting Cityship into an automated factory.  The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Ishtar.
2223 The ramscoop Gaea arrives at Altantis.  Yan Rheyes begins her unsuccessful term as president of Atlantis.  The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Avalon.  Dame Catherine Jones becomes the first human to celebrate a 300th birthday.  Mechanist scientists on Varuna revive Pavel Karinsky and successfully treat his brain condition.
2224 The Pride of Terra triumphantly returns to the solar system.  The Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Lagrush, initiating a formal contact.  An industrial recovery begins on Terra and spreads through the Solar System.
2225 The election of a Liberal Senator from Luna shifts the balance of power, with a Liberal-Colonial coalition gaining control of the Grand Senate.  Atlantis completes the North America, a 30m starship with a crew of eighty; starship improvements include a longer range (Type IIa) macrojump drive, HSPG thrusters and a macro-molecular hull.  On its first voyage, the North America expands the research stations on Kalmar and BCB.  In its final mission, the Gagarin conducts a detailed survey of Hercules.  The Newton conducts the Third Oracle expedition focusing on the artifacts of earlier Quadron civilization, but encounters violent resistance and departs after loosing four crew members.  The world of Oracle is permanently quarantined.  Lord John Anderson of Libertas and Viggo Turki begin discussions on eliminating the threat of Vulcan expansion.
2226 In the Centaurus (2) Sector, the Rheyes contacts the Alimeen, a subjovian hydrogen-breathing race with a technological level nearly equivalent to Terra and an apparently older culture.  The North America places a contact base in orbit around Lagrush.  Another bill to form a Confederate Exploration Service founders in the Grand Senate.  The ramscoop Gaea sets out on a year-long colonization voyage to Proxima.
2227 The Europa enters service at Atlantis and immediately sets out on an diplomatic mission to establish an orbital contact base orbiting Alimeen.  Atlantis tests a high power positron beam weapon for its Continent class starships.  Rain falls on Mars for the first time in nearly one billion years.  An influence peddling scandal in the Atlantian Justice Ministry seriously damages the President Rheyes' credibility.  The Gaea establishes a settlement of five hundred people on Proxima Prime.
2228 On Atlantis, the Republic authorizes the creation of the Atlantian Navy.  The North America sets out on the Hyades expedition.  The Maxwell temporarily evacuates the crew of the Lagrush station as resources shift toward Alimeen.  The Gaea returns to Atlantis, beginning round-trip service to the Proxima colony on a two year schedule.
2229 Viggo Turki becomes President of Atlantis for a second time; he appoints Tomas Johannessen as Admiral of the Atlantian Navy.  A sedated Alimeen delegation travels aboard the Europa to hold meetings with Confederation representatives on Luna.  Negotiations on Libertas form the basis of planning for the invasion of Vulcan.  The South America enters service, conducting a shuttle mission to support the bases on Kalmar, BCB and Alimeen.
2230 Admiral Johannessen leads a covert scouting mission to the Epsilon Eridani system, discovering that the clone-enhanced population now tops thirty thousand.  The Asia enters service as a transport capable of carry up to four hundred passengers.  The Liberal-Colonial coalition maintains control of the Grand Senate. Atlantis installs a positron accelerator in the North America.
2231 The Vulcan War begins. The two battle tenders, Midway and Waterloo, enter service.  Accompanied by North America, Europa, Asia, Einstein, Newton, Maxwell, and six Libertine gunboats, they invade Epsilon Eridani under the command of Admiral Johannessen aboard the Einstein.  A brief battle destroys the obsolete Easterner fleet.  Subsequent missions bring three battalions of Atlantian and Libertine Marines to capture the ground installations and end resistance.
2232 The Atlantian and Libertine governments declare Vulcan open for colonization and maintain marital law, eventually declaring all clones as Artificial Status but conferring Resident status to the surviving fifty-two Easterner colonists and their thirty-five natural descendents.  The Confederation Grand Senate narrowly approves conduct of the war after a bitter debate.  Interrogations lead to the impression that the Battlestar will reach 82 Eridani in 2251.  The renegade ramscoop Cousteau arrives at 82 Eridani and is met by the Maxwell; a boarding party determines that the vessel is completely empty and its logs wiped clean.  The Cousteau is parked in orbit around the main gas giant Tartarus.  The Belt's Flora Research Labs discovers a dark energy antimatter distillation technique.  This process, developed by a group of Belter and Lunar scientists, greatly reduces the cost of antimatter production.  The Belt and Luna claim patent rights over the discovery and invoke the Comparative Advantage Amendment to avoid disclosing the technique.  The Australia passenger transport enters service.
2233 At Atlantian prompting, the Grand Senate repeals the Comparative Advantage Amendment.  Atlantis releases the details of macrojump drive and molecular materials technology in return for the vacuum distillation technique.  Terraformation work on Vulcan, started by the Easterners, resumes under Atlantian and Libertine supervision.  The Confederation establishes a joint Exploratory Service (CES), authorizing the construction of twelve Explorer Class 25m vessels capable of carrying crews of forty.  The Africa passenger transport enters service.
2234 The first Terran macrojump starship, the 30m Odysseus, enters service.  The last continent class starship, the Antarctica, enters service as a research vessel leased to the CES.  Libertas begins fast cloning AS with imported Easterner stock to meet labor needs in the Inback.
2235 The Odysseus establishes a survey base on Paradise.  The first four CES vessels enter service.  The Liberal-Colonial coalition maintains control of the Grand Senate despite growing right-wing sentiment on Terra.  Tomas Johannessen becomes President of Atlantis.
2236 The Confederation and the Alimeen sign formal diplomatic relations and trade treaties on Luna.  An Alimeen observer team begins attending Grand Senate sessions.
2237 The starship Mayflower, a 55m transport with the capacity of up to two thousand colonists, reaches completion over Terra.  Dame Catherine Jones dies on Terra at age 314.
2238 The colonization of Paradise begins with the maiden voyage of the Mayflower.  The CES Shackleton and Livingstone embark on a deep space mission to Spica at the edge of their range.  Atlantis retires the Gaea, transferring Proxima resupply service to macrojump vessels.
2239 The Battlestar enters the 82 Eridani system.  While still decelerating towards the outer habitable world, Amaterasu, the Battlestar encounters and captures the CES Boone and takes the crew prisoner.  Determining the status of Vulcan and the state of Confederation forces and intelligence, Admiral Narita orders the settlement and fortification of Amaterasu, beginning immediate clone production to supplement troops strengths.  Disassembling the Boone, scientists set to work duplicating Confederation technology, including macrojump, anti-matter distillation, molecular armor and HSPG thrusters.
2240 The CES Livingstone disappears while attempting to retrace the Boone's route; it is also captured at Amaterasu and the Easterners transfer the crews of both vessels to a camp on Dante, the marginally habitable second planet of 82 Eridani.  The CES discovers a macrojump drive defect that seems to explain the two vessels' disappearances.  The Grand Senate approves funding for overhauls on all Explorer class starships and the construction of four additional vessels.  A shift in Lunar voting patterns leads to the ascendancy of a right-wing Conservative-Horizon coalition in the Grand Senate.
2241 On Amaterasu, the Easterners begin construction of Samurai class HSPG gunboats and six experimental macrojump vessels.  The Confederation trades macrojump technology to the Alimeen for techniques in hyper-string force manipulations.  James McKnight, Tomas Johannessen and Yatindra Gupta first begin plans for the colonization of Kalmar.  Libertas completes the Freedom, its first macrojump starship.  Viggo Turki becomes President of Atlantis for a third time.
2242 Easterner Samurai gunships destroy the Freedom at Amaterasu.  The CES Hillary and Scott jump to Amaterasu to investigate the Freedom's disappearance; the heavily damaged Scott escapes the Easterner ambush and jumps directly to Sol.  The Confederation begins deliberations over a response to the attacks.
2243 The Amaterasu War begins. The Confederate Joint Expeditionary Force under command of Admiral Aaron Timmins aboard the cruiser Invincible consists of twelve starships and ten gunboats; it jumps to 82 Eridani and fights five indecisive skirmishes during three months in 82 Eridani's outer system.  The task force withdraws to Libertas after Easterner forces destroy the Asia and Waterloo, then cripple and capture the Invincible at the Battle of Tartarus, killing Admiral Timmins.  In the lull, the Battlestar heads coreward (to Victoria/Hachiman/Nova) under the command of Captain Hiroshi.  Six jury-rigged macrojump vessels, each with a crew of twenty-four, depart coreward to establish new enclaves.  A new task force under the joint command of Admirals Zhang and Johannessen achieves orbital supremacy in the Battle of Amaterasu, where Admiral Narita dies ramming the Europa.  Subsequent orbital bombardment of Amaterasu paves the way for a Marine force landing.
2244 On Amaterasu, Easterner ground forces continue to resist and launch guerrilla raids until the last mountain redoubts fall in May.  The Confederation raids Dante, destroys the garrison and rescues the surviving CES crews from the Boone, Linvingstone and Hillary.  Final toll for the war, not including the three scout ships and the Freedom lost earlier, is seven Confederation starships and nine Confederation gunboats lost, with three thousand soldiers killed and over two thousand injured.  The Easterners lost all their vessels but only four thousand people, mostly clones.  Of the thirty-seven surviving Battlestar crew, twenty-five are tried, convicted and executed for war crimes; the last twelve, all scientists, are exiled to Dante.  Interrogations fail to reveal the destinations of the six colony ships or the Battlestar.  Easterner macrojump ships settle the enclaves of Honshu, Shikoku, Manchukuo and Chosun.
2245 A centrist coalition of Conservative, Liberal and Libertas First members dominates the new Grand Senate which fails to agree on plans to form a Confederation Navy.  A short recession spreads through the Confederation.  Unification talks between the Confederation and the Alimeen begin on Luna.  A group of Atlantian and Martian colonists settle on Kalmar, appointing James McKnight as Lord Kalmar, a symbolic head of state.  Easterner macrojump ships settle Formosa and Kyushu.  Terra authorizes two more Mayflower class transports, the Coventry and the Dover.
2246 Discussions begin on constitutional changes to allow for the new colonies and the Alimeen to receive Confederation representation.  The Grand Senate expands funding for the CES and establishes the Confederation Communications Service (CCS), allocating funds for ten courier vessels.  The CES abandons active efforts to search for the Easterner macrojump ships.
2247 The Alimeen join the Confederation and reveal the existence of the Grand Federation; all Alimeen historical records become available to Human scholars.  The CES establishes a survey base on Eden to support future colonization.  The Terran Navy cuts its forces by 25%, selling its surplus vessels to the CCS.  A M'kkiae patrol vessel makes contact with the Easterner enclave on Kyushu.
2248 A large majority of Citizens ratifies a modified Confederation constitution.  Based on new powers, the Grand Senate approves a Confederation-wide 1.5% value added tax (VAT).  Alimeen archaeologists identify several outposts on BCB III as being of Grand Federation origin.  The Confederation resumes extensive contact with the Comans.  Atlantis begins production of the 40m Hastings class of frigates, which most navies incorporate as patrol vessels.  The M’kkiae absorb the Kyushu colony as a subject world and conduct a perimeter sweep, discovering and occupying Chosun and Formosa.
2249 The University of Deimos perfects an energy absorbing "black" radiant forcefield generator. The M’kkiae Council of Clans decides that Humanity constitutes a threat to the M’kkiae Combine and begins debate on the best method for neutralizing this threat.  Additional M’kkiae sweeps occupy the three remaining Easterner colonies and M’kkiae scout vessels travel to Human space, scouting the 82 Eridani system.
2250 After another failure to create a Confederation Navy, the Grand Senate authorizes the High Command, a permanent staff and logistics organization to coordinate member Naval forces. The VAT increases to 2%.  Avalon and Xanadu, the first 40m CES starships with a crew of 100 and onboard artificial gravity compensators, enter service.  The Terran Navy installs Deimos shields in its two 55m battleships.  Atlantis completes the Alexander, a 55m battleship equipped with a spinal positron mount and a Deimos shield, and two Hastings class frigates, Hastings and Culloden.  The M'kkiae supply the Easterner enclaves with support ships to launch improved Samurai gunships.  In the first reformed election, a Liberal-Progressive coalition takes control of the Grand Senate and is supported by the six Alimeen Senators.
2251 The M'kkiae War begins as Easterner gunships attack and destroy the CES station on Mulligan in the Aquarius (5) Sector.  Two Samurai gunships attack and destroy the Nansen while it conducts a deep exploration mission in the Hercules Sector.  The Zephyr class of 13m fast (Type IIb) deep-range exploratory starships begins production.  A Belter patrol frigate destroys an automated alien probe near Juno.  Some members of the Time Travel Society awaken in Australia; though a few members withdraw, more new members sign up for a fifty year slumber that will end in a Grand Reunion in 2301.
2252 Easterner raiders conduct seven attacks on the Confederation rim, including raids that destroy the Ibn Buttuta and occupy the CES base on Delphi.  The Confederation responds with aggressive patrols and reaction forces.  After retreating from Delphi, the Easterners establish forward bases in the Arcturus and Fomalhaut systems.  The Confederate High Command mobilizes all naval forces, including Alimeen vessels, but does not yet realize it is fighting an alien-backed invasion.
2253 The Easterner Arcturus Fleet invades 61 Virginis to capture Kalmar, but are thwarted at the Battle of Kalmar by the Atlantian First Fleet, under the command of Admiral Johannessen.  The Arcturus Fleet later launches another raid on Delphi, crippling the Armstrong and destroying the ANS Powell.  The Easterner Fomalhaut Fleet launches commerce raiding expeditions against Amaterasu, Vulcan and Libertas.  The M'kkiae Council of Clans ends the Great Debate and orders full mobilization.  Viggo Turki becomes President of Atlantis for a fourth time.
2254 A M'kkiae forward battle group musters at Fomalhaut and launches a combined attack, beginning the 82 Eridani Campaign.  Admiral Lord Henke's Terran First Battle Fleet, supported by Libertine auxiliaries, meets the assault.  At the Battle of Dante, the first contact between Confederation and M'kkiae forces ends in a draw.  Alimeen forces recognize the alien remains as M'kkiae, and call for full war mobilization.  At the Battle of Tartarus, the Confederation looses the battleship Grant and the flag staff, including Henke, in an unsuccessful attempt to dislodge the enemy from the system.  At the Battle of Amaterasu, Captain August Timmins, Duke of Texas, forces the Combine fleet to withdraw after a bloody attempt to take the planet.  The Zephyr enters service as a military scout.
2255 The Grand Senate creates the Confederation Navy, incorporating all member naval and marine units; it imposes a 25% VAT and begins selling war bonds.  Easterner gunships reinfest the 82 Eridani system.  Four Conqueror class 60m dreadnoughts, Sargon, Napoleon, Caesar and Genghis Khan, reach completion at L-5 Shipyards.  Admiral Zhang's Confederation First Fleet destroys a M'kkiae reinforcement squadron bound for Fomalhaut at the Battle of Typhon.  The Combine launches a massive attack at the Battle of Alimeen; its bombardments destroying much of Alimeen industry before withdrawing in response to the arrival of Admiral Johannessen's Confederation Second Fleet.  The Confederation establishes forward naval bases at Tripoli and Champa.  On Atlantis, work begins on a disintegrator device.  A rightist coalition regains control of the Grand Senate amid charges the liberals left the Confederation unprepared for war.
2256 Construction of the 150m planet buster Hellkings begins in the Belt.  Admiral Johannessen chases Easterner raiding forces from Kalmar and BCB and disperses a second assault on Alimeen.  The M'kkiae muster at Fomalhaut and launch a sustained Libertas Campaign.  In the First Battle of Libertas, Easterner Marines supported by M'kkiae drone armor capture the world after a crushing M'kkiae naval assault.  Fleeing the towns, Libertine guerrillas control the Inback and harass the occupation force until the Second Battle of Libertas when Admiral Timmins' Third Fleet retakes Libertas on Christmas Day.  The First Fleet evacuates forward positions at Tripoli under pressure from M'kkiae probing attacks.
2257 Admiral Singh's Confederation Fourth Fleet reoccupies and fortifies Tripoli.  Atlantian disintegrator-armed Hector class 50m cruisers enter service.  Two more Conqueror class dreadnaughts, Attila and Timur enter service.  The Confederation Marines introduce unsupervised robot troops in limited numbers.  At the Battle of Vulcan, the M'kkiae win an orbital engagement, but ground-based fire destroys the Easterner landing boats and troopships and the M'kkiae withdraw after bombarding Vulcan.  Belter patrol vessels destroy a M'kkiae scouting expedition near Jupiter.  Admiral Zhang becomes Confederation Grand Admiral, retaining control of the First Fleet.  The Fifth Fleet, under command of Admiral Shelton, musters at Libertas.
2258 At the First Battle of Tripoli, the Fourth Fleet defeats a Combine task force and engages M'kkiae ground troops for the first time.  M'kkiae forces depart Arcturus to engage in the Second Battle of Alimeen, retreating after inflicting heavy damage to population centers and industry.  With the Second Fleet at Alimeen, Easterner Marines supported by M'kkiae orbital bombardment and select ground units invade lightly defended Kalmar, but the Easterners surrender to partisans after the bloody two month Kalmar Campaign ends with the return of the Second Fleet and a M'kkiae withdrawal.  The Combine Fomalhaut Fleet strikes the 82 Eridani system , meeting the Confederation Third and Fifth Fleets at the Second Battle of Dante, the heaviest fighting to date.  Timmins and Shelton survive to win a pyrrhic victory, loosing the Napoleon, Attila and half their fleets.  Confederation forces fortify and mine the 82 Eridani system after destroying the last Combine raiders.
2259 The M'kkiae begin their Grand Offensive.  At the Battle of Champa, the M'kkiae Prime Fleet overruns the Fourth Fleet destroying the Alexander and the Caesar and killing Admiral Singh.  The M'kkiae fleets combine and muster at Procyon, where the Third Fleet fights a rearguard action at the Battle of Procyon, withdrawing to Sol for fear of an imminent invasion.  Admiral Zhang anticipates M'kkiae strategy and combines the First, Second remnants of the Third and Fifth Fleets to fight the Battle of Sirius.  In a battle even bloodier than Second Dante, the combined Confederation fleets destroy the massing Combine invasion force, but Admiral Zhang dies in the aftermath.  At the Battle of Sol a small M'kkiae force escaping from Sirius approaches to within two million kilometers of Terra before being destroyed.  Tomas Johannessen becomes Grand Admiral and creates three new battle fleets out of the surviving Confederate vessels.  Commanding the First himself, he gives Timmins the Second and Shelton the Third.
2260 The First Fleet defeats the Combine at the Battle of Fomalhaut and the Second Fleet wins the Battle of Arcturus.  New vessels form the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Fleets under Admirals Khalid, Reynard, and Ombutu.  At the Second Battle of Tripoli the Fourth Fleet routs a retreating Combine convoy, capturing several Easterners, and discovering the locations of Honshu and Shikoku, which quickly fall.  At the Battle of Manchukuo, the Sixth fleet destroys the remnants of the Easterner Fleet and conquers two more enclaves.  By year's end all Easterner enclaves have surrendered and signed the Treaty of Manchukuo.  Hellking Satan, first of five, enters service.  Admiral Johannessen travels to Alimeen to discuss strategies for ending the war.  The Grand Senate grows more conservative, with the Libertines joining the coalition in favor of a vigorous campaign against the M'kkiae.  Both Viggo Turki, serving as a Grand Senator from Atlantis, and the Alimeen call for unconditional surrender.  The Hellking Hades enters service.  The terraformation of Venus officially finishes, but colonization is limited by the war.
2261 The First, Second and Sixth Fleets push coreward into M'kkiae territory.  At the Battle of Norma Jean, the Second Fleet, led by the Satan, defeats a M'kkiae fleet in the the first battlefield use of a Hellking.  At the Battle of Hammersmote the Hades destroys a M'kkiae outpost after Johannessen authorizes the first use of a Hellking against a planetary body.  The M'kkiae prepare for total war, refusing to discuss surrender.  Ceres Industrial Labs perfects a two station teleportation device, but range is limited to 30,000 km in a gravity free environment.  The last three Hellkings, Lucifer, Pluto and Loki enter service.  At the Battle of Khzraut, the Sixth Fleet liberates the Khzraut race of chlorine breathers.  The remaining M'kkiae naval forces retreat to their home system for a final stand.  The Zenith regeneration therapy procedure gets full approval, allowing up to ten regenerations and adding a theoretical 300 additional years to the human lifespan.
2262 Four Confederate fleets sweep the eight M'kkiae colonies, firing Hellking bursts as necessary against colonists bent on fighting to the death.  Admiral Johannessen combines the fleets to launch the M'kkia Campaign, enters the M'kkia system and reduces outposts piecemeal.  The M'kkiae launch a massive assault, meeting the Confederation Combined Fleet on approach to M'kkia.  The Confederation looses nearly three fifths of the fleet at the Battle of M'kkia, which rages until the two surviving Hellkings, Lucifer and Hades, turn M'kkia into a sterile inferno.
2263 After an extensive search of all M'kkiae worlds fails to find a single M'kkiae survivor, the Grand Senate declares peace on December 31.  The Confederation establishes a contact station on Khzraut and the first Khzraut envoys travel to Luna.  Admiral Johannessen retires to Kalmar.  Admiral Timmins, crippled at M'kkia, returns to Texas to enter politics.  Admiral Reynard, the last remaining Fleet Admiral, becomes Grand Admiral.  Full scale colonization of Venus begins.
2264 The CES authorizes the colonization of Eden and the Coventry and Dover finally enter civilian service.  The Grand Senate passes the Space Exploitation and Homestead Act allowing commercial development and colonization of any uninhabited body within a designated surveyed settlement radius.  An amendment gives oversight powers to the CES on the settlement of all class A through E planets.  Surplus naval vessels greatly enlarge the CES and CCS. The Grand Senate reduces the VAT to 10%.  The Khzraut join the Confederation, which adjusts the composition of the Grand Senate in accordance with protocols of the 2248 Constitution.
2265 The ramscoops Zeus and Chronos arrive at Delta Pavonis and settle Aphrodite.  The CES establishes a liaison with the Aphrodite colony, which officially joins the Confederation.  The Grand Senate expands to fifty-nine seats, of which the Alimeen hold eight and the Khzraut six.  The rightist war coalition maintains control of the Grand Senate, with the Khzraut refusing to join either faction and usually abstaining from votes on matters that do not directly affect them.  Viggo Turki becomes president of Atlantis for the fifth and final time.
2266 The Mellon Reconstruction Program begins massive aid to rebuild industry on Alimeen and Khzraut while expanding cross-species cultural contacts.
2267 The CES cancels a proposed mission to the star Shaula, 300 light-years coreward and near where the Alimeen estimate the Grand Federation border lies.
2268 The Khzraut colonize Medusa to maintain a settlement near human space and demonstrate their new-found freedom.  CES Ranger, the first 10m singleship, enters service.
2269 The Mars Terraformation project officially reaches completion with ceremonies at Lowell attended by James McKnight, Lord Kalmar, the first person to walk on Mars 250 years earlier.
2270 An extremely strong showing by the Liberal Party leads to a Liberal-Progressive coalition joined by Libertas and the Alimeen.  The Khzraut join the ruling parties but factional differences prevent the delegation from voting as a block.  The Easterner enclaves of Honshu and Manchukuo return to civilian rule; the CES declares the remaining four enclaves unviable, but allows residents to remain if they choose.
2271 The Grand Senate passes the Alien Races Protection Act to end fears of exploitation of lesser developed races, specifically the Comans, Quadrons and Lagrush.
2272 The CES Curie discovers a quiescent stellar-sized black hole 200 light years from Sol in the Hercules (25) Sector.  Joseph Bartos, future King of Venus, emigrates to Venus and starts the Maxwell Biogenics Corporation with his younger brother and son as partners.
2273 The CES sponsors the colonization of Apollo.  A bill to free AS naturals fails by a significant margin in the Grand Senate.  Atlantis emancipates its AS, but no major worlds follow suit.  Libertas, heavily dependent on an AS clone underclass withdraws from the coalition government in protest, fearing the eventual emancipation of all AS.
2274 The CES Swift discovers a second Alimeen ecosystem subjovian world, White Wind.  The Khzraut settle Fortuna, Jade and Saltfire, chlorine ecosphere planets that once hosted ancient Khzraut colonies.
2275 A right-wing coalition backed by Libertas gains control of the Grand Senate; an election focus on AS polices strains the Liberal Party leadership.  Sir Joseph Bourasaw becomes the first person to celebrate a 350th birthday.
2276 Disillusioned Liberals join with the Progressive Party to form the Reformed Party at the Conference of Hellas.  The party's central tenets include abolishing all AS restrictions and eliminating legal class distinctions; Roland Willenski becomes Party Chairman, with the Count of Tharsis, Yatindra Gupta, acting as a senior advisor.
2277 After a large contingent of Confederation naval personnel and dependents elect to remain on Tripoli despite the closure of its naval base, the CES authorizes an in-situ colonization of the planet.  Mechanists on Varuna develop templates for transferring memories between human and electronic brains, but warn that the procedure does not preserve personality; in a press release Pavel Karinsky lauds the progress but cautions that true Mechanist transfers are still decades away.  The patented Mechanist transfers quickly allow the transmission of knowledge and experiences to human brains, prompting a revolution in training and education techniques.
2278 CES Mustang singleship pilot Dirk Hermann discovers a twenty million year old Gatebuilder installation on Hermann's Moon around a gas giant in the Orion (8) Sector.  The first Type IIc macrojump vessels, capable of 30 light year jumps, enter service as CES singleship scouts and couriers.
2279 Citing reduced threat levels and aging equipment, the Grand Senate cuts the Confederation naval budget by 15% and mothballs a quarter of the fleet.
2280 The Khzraut Civil War begins.  Warfare erupts during a dispute over the selection of Khzraut Senators.  The Khzraut quickly fragment into nearly a dozen philosophically-based factions and all government and diplomatic missions return to their worlds to aid in the fighting.  A CES research station opens on Hermann's Moon, uncovering the Gatemaze.  The Reformed Party does well in the general elections but its eight Grand Senate seats weaken the Liberal Party, and the Horizon-Conservative-Libertas coalition retains power.
2281 In a referendum, Kalmar overwhelming votes to free AS naturals.  Khzraut commerce raiding discourages Human and Alimeen merchants from supplying the warring factions and Confederation mediation efforts fail to end the civil war.  Hermann Station and the Gatemaze disappear without a trace.  The CES sponsors the colonization of Delphi.
2282 Private exploration and trading companies protest new licensing regulations by starting a two month strike that brings interstellar shipping to a standstill, prompting the Grand Senate to withdraw the new regulations.  The CES Roanoke discovers the Timbor, a stone age race of amphibians in the Leo (4) Sector.
2283 A brief Khzraut truce collapses.  The Confederation Navy quarantines Khzraut worlds and escorts merchants through contested systems.  Soon, single factions control all Khzraut colonies, but bitter fighting continues on the homeworld.  All major political parties agree to call a constitutional convention to solve structural problems and modify the Confederation's powers and Grand Senate composition.
2284 Most naval personnel on Champa elect colonization over transfer as its base faces closure.  As the Confederation Constitutional Convention convenes in Miami, unknown assailants assassinate Reformed Party leader Roland Willenski during a University of Miami rally.  The Convention delegates rewrite the constitution to exclude the Khzraut and reduce Alimeen Grand Senate seats to five at their request.  An additional seat assigned to the new colonies shifts the balance of power slightly away from Terra, but Horizon Party delegates resist strengthening civil rights guarantees.  Member governments quickly ratify the new constitution.
2285 Colonial liberal reaction against the assassination of Willenski and a strengthening of the Reformed Party allow a liberal coalition to gain control of the Grand Senate.  Yatindra Gupta returns from retirement to lead the Reformed Party.  An economic boom spreads throughout the Confederation.
2286 The Terran colony transport Coventry disappears en route to Apollo with 3,200 lost.  Teleportation booths begin linking co-orbiting NEAR habitats at the Terra/Luna LaGrange points.  A CES team on Ares discovers the extensive ruins of a fifty thousand year old Founders city in the Sanchez Desert.  Willy Donner is born in Chicago on Terra.  The Alimeen establish a colony on White Wind.
2287 The right-wing fringe of the Horizon Party forms the Order Prosperity Party (OP) at a convention in Brasilia.  Its ranks include several economists claiming credit for the current prosperity.  August Timmins, Duke of Texas, becomes the party Chairman.  Party membership outside Terra and Luna is scant.  Atlantian and Martian colonists settle Odin; a settlement pact outlaws AS status and gives full citizenship rights to all sentients, including biological and artificial Constructs.  The CES Rodriguez discovers the planet New Rome.
2288 The Restoration regeneration procedure receives full approval, theoretically expanding the Human lifespan to over 1,400 years with twelve full and timely regenerations and continual age NB reduction treatments.
2289 Khzraut factions invited to the Grand Martian Exposition in Lowell attack each other, killing most of the Khzraut present and nearly two hundred bystanders.
2290 A rightist coalition gains power in the Grand Senate, with the Order Prosperity Party absorbing over a third of the Horizon Party's membership.  The Confederation begins implementing OP economic policies.  The CES authorizes colonization of Utopia.
2291 Experimental Life Therapy genetic manipulations at the University of Deimos breed "immortal" mice.
2292 The CES Moroney discovers the planet Bengal.  The CES authorizes general colonization of Cyclops.
2293 Economic growth levels off as new regulations take effect.  Smaller corporations begin to suffer under OP policies, though the transworld corporations generally benefit.
2294 The Reformist government on Mars frees AS naturals and imposes severe restrictions on the private ownership of Constructs.  The colonization of Artemis proceeds after CES approval..
2295 The right-wing coalition retains control of the Grand Senate as the Order Prosperity Party continues to make gains at Horizon Party expense.  Politics on Libertas begin to shift in favor of a more reformist platform, but the Libertine senators still join the ruling coalition.  A CES survey mission encounters a multi-species bronze age civilization on Huron in the Orion (8) Sector.
2296 Adopting the Odin Pact, Atlantis and Kalmar emancipate Constructs and extend citizenship to all Sentients.  Members of the old guard of the the Horizon Party establish a colony on Horizon after a tumultuous CES approval process.
2297 The CES authorizes the Atlantian settlement of Thor.  The Confederation Navy establishes a new technology skunkworks shipyard at Troilus in the Jovian Trailing Trojans.
2298 The economy shows signs of weakening.  Order Prosperity policy has encouraged a series of mergers that have decreased competition; small independent interstellar prospecting and trading companies are nearly extinct.  The Reformed Party establishes a CES-sanctioned colony on Helicon.
2299 August Timmins undergoes the experimental Life Therapy process to cure his injuries from the war.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Prometheus.  The Alimeen establish a second colony on Salt Breeze.
2300 The Order Prosperity Party continues to gain strength at the expense of the Horizon Party.  A right-wing coalition maintains dominance of the Grand Senate, with Libertas and the Alimeen increasingly acting as a moderating force within the ruling coalition.  The Colonial Administration Amendment passes the Grand Senate assigning Confederation governors to all worlds with a population under 25,000.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Avalon.  Protests against appointed governors begin on Odin and Tripoli.
2301 Colonial protests spread to all worlds with appointed governors.  Libertine Grand Senators withdraw from the ruling coalition and join the opposition.  The Alimeen Senators maintain the ruling right-wing coalition with increasing misgivings.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Daedalus, though three appointed governors resign before the first colonists arrive.  Colonists on Odin force the governor and his staff to flee to Luna.  The Time Travel Society holds its Grand Reunion in Australia; most members choose to rejoin regular society, but sixty-seven vow to continue their trek into the future in hundred year increments.
2302 The Grand Senate passes a modified Colonial Administration Amendment that allows colonial citizens to reject a governor by a two-thirds vote.  Under these new rules, the colonization of Ishtar proceeds without incident.
2303 Major religious leaders accuse the Terran Commonwealth and Confederation governments of using separation of church and state as an excuse to persecute members of all faiths.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Olympus.
2304 The Terran Testing Board approves Life Therapy treatment, a permanent genetic alteration that creates what becomes known as Homo Nobilis: Humans with a lifespan then projected at over one thousand years with greatly enhanced health; side effects include complete loss of all hair follicles and nails and a a rare occurrence of a severe immune disorder (CID).  Other worlds quickly approve Life Therapy.  Religious leaders form the United Faith Party in Algiers and immediately renounce Life Therapy.  Libertine settlers establish a colony on Aeneas.  The CES also authorizes the colonization of Asgard.
2305 Tomas Johannessen is one of the first general recipients of Life Therapy and becomes a major spokesman for the process in media ads.  The United Faith Party gains Grand Senate seats on Terra, NEAR and Luna, mostly at Conservative Party expense, and joins a Liberal-Reformed-Libertine coalition.  Religious unrest, mostly Moslem, spreads throughout the Mideast.  The CES authorizes the settlement of Dayan by Israeli Jews and the general settlement of Hermes and Nike.  Starting with the colonization of Dayan, the CES administration generally allows the initial settlers of a world to choose their own governor.
2306 A short recession, which the liberals blame on nearly two decades of Order Prosperity policy, spreads through the Confederation.  Pavel Karinsky comments on Life Therapy, calling it promising, but still not a path to immortality.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Osiris by secular Arabs fleeing unrest in North Africa.  The CES also authorizes the general colonization of Felix.
2307 Tomas Johannessen departs Kalmar on a private singleship expedition and does not return.  "Gray" forcefields and degenerate armor begins appearing on new and refitted Naval vessels, courtesy research at the Troilus Skunkworks.  A group of Mormon settlers colonize Deseret.  General colonization of Isis begins after a CES report downplays solar instability.
2308 Confederation naval engineers successfully test a microjump drive prototype at the Troilus Skunkworks.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Diana and Hercules.  The Alimeen establish a colony on Storm Seed.
2309 At Princeton, Willy Donner submits his doctoral thesis on PsychoMacroEconomics, predicting the Crash of '18 as an empirical test, but receives little recognition beyond a PhD degree and an offer to teach at Stanford.  The CES authorizes the settlement of Sparta by members of the Geraldi Cult, Niagara as a general colony world, and Macoraba by Islamist purists.
2310 The microjump starship CNX Cortez begins trials, including public demonstration voyages to Alpha Centauri and Tau Ceti.  The CES authorizes a secular Lebenase colony on Levant and general colonization of Arakis and Camelot.  The liberal coalition, supported by the growing United Faith Party, retains control of the Grand Senate.
2311 The CES orders four 40m microjump drive survey vessels and proposes a Grand Federation contact mission.  The Asteroid Belt adopts the Odin Pact and frees AS naturals and Constructs.  General Computing Devices begins marketing sentient computer implants, called Companion Guides.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Aurora, a Martian colony on Ares and an southern African colony on Zulu.
2312 The Confederation begins a massive naval modernization project in an attempt to stimulate the economy, authorizing a new fleet of microjump vessels: 40m destroyers, 50m cruisers and 60m battleships. The CES orders four more microjump survey vessels, a dozen 13m scouts and a dozen 8m singleships.  A CES survey team contacts the stone age cold nitrogen/ethane Stygian race on a gas giant moon in the Cancer (31) Sector.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Agade by secular Arabs, Reich by German nationalists and the general colonization of Hebe.
2313 Chandra Industries begins selling rapid fabrication boxes, producing most simple objects in real-time.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Ghandi by Indian nationalists, Victoria by members of the old British aristocracy and Tanith by members of the faltering Conservative Party.
2314 The microjump survey ship CES Jason completes a round-trip voyage between Ceres and Kalmar in ten days.  The Charon Research Lab tests a teleportation system allowing transfers of up to 30,000 km in a gravity well and 300,000 km in free space; as it still requires transmitting and receiving booths, it proves effective only between civilized end points, precluding use by the CES or Confederation Navy.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Odysseus and the settlements of Mithras by secular Iranians and Rama by Hindu Indians.
2315 The first teleportation between the Terran surface and the High Amazonia geosynchronous station occurs.  Teleportation booths installations spread through the NEAR colonies. The liberal coalition, backed by the United Faith Party, maintains control of the Grand Senate, though observers note the weakening of the traditional Conservative and Liberal Parties.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Tyche, Inanna and Hector.  Future unifier and King Albert Kagnon-Mellon is born on Mars.
2316 The CES authorizes the colonization of Hsia by Chinese settlers, Penance by a Catholic sect led by Bishop Joachim Walter and Lenin by Russian communist idealists.  The Alimeen utilize microjump vessels to settle Night Gust.
2317 Commercial microjump vessels enter service.  The CES Jason contacts the pre-industrial and apparently telepathic Swarm race in the Cetus (46) Sector.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Demeter and the twin planets of Romulus and Remus.  The CES also authorizes the Chinese settlement of Han.
2318 The Confederation-wide Donner's Depression occurs as predicted with stock markets collapsing after a rapid rise in inflation and unemployment.  The CES cancels the Grand Federation contact mission, but continues to authorize colonization of four more worlds: Yathrib by Moslem fundamentalists, Zimbabwe by Africans, Enlightenment by Western Buddhists, and Hera as a general colony.
2319 The depression deepens with a 2% contraction of the Confederation economy.  A contact mission to the Swarm homeworld, dubbed Megahive, ends in hostilities, prompting a CES quarantine of the system.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Thebes, Icarus and Poseidon and the colonization of Hectate by Pagan cultists.
2320 A right-wing coalition dominated by the Order Prosperity Party takes control of the Grand Senate after a depression-dominated election that increases extremist political and religious views. The Liberal Party does not hold a single Grand Senate Seat, and though the Reformed Party is the largest block in the Grand Senate, it fails to convince the Alimeen to join a coalition against the Human majority.  The CES authorizes colonization of four worlds: Ch'in by Chinese settlers, Amazonia for general settlement, Thoth by the Thoth society, a group of wealthy philosophers and scientists, and Tyr by the Order Prosperity Party.  Lord Attila Timmins, son of the Duke of Texas, becomes governor of Tyr.
2321 Professor Willy Donner finishes his General PsychoMacroEconomics Theory, but receives little support for his views outside the Reformed Party.  With the depression continuing, the Confederation re-imposes OP economic policies.  James McKnight, the Duke of Kalmar, abdicates in favor of his son, Tor, and drops from public view.  The CES authorizes the colonization of four worlds: Heaven and Khronos for general settlement, Islam by Moslem fundamentalists, and Khalistan by Sikh nationalists.
2322 With half the Citizen workforce unemployed and OP restrictions imposed on free economic and religious activity, unrest begins to spread on Terra and throughout the Solar System.  After a decade of calm, violence begins to flare in the Mideast.  Willy Donner publishes The Fall of The Confederation, predicting a second economic crash in twelve years unless the entire Confederation economic and social system is radically restructured.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Karinsky by the Mechanists led by Pavel Karinsky, the colonization of Kurdistan by Kurdish nationalists and opens the system containing Pyramus and Thisbe for general settlement.
2323 The left wing of Reformed Party adopts Donnerist Theory as a central tenet and begins calling for a constitutional convention and a stronger, federalist state.  The CES authorizes colonization of four worlds: Achilles for general settlement, Catalonia by Catalonians, New Palestine by Palestinians and Salvation by the Owenite Christian sect.
2324 The Confederation economy begins a slow recovery, for which the OP takes full credit.  The Terran government bans Willy Donner from all publicly funded media.  To further the recovery, the Terran government begins a massive program to link all major surface and orbital locations by a passenger and cargo teleportation network.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Elysium and Gothia, a Libertine settlement of the planet Freedom and a German nationalist settlement of Preussen.
2325 The continuing economic recovery and extremist calls for revolution among the Reformist left wing lead to an election victory that further shifts power to the OP in the ruling right-wing coalition.  The Alimeen debate for six days before joining the coalition.  Sir Joseph Bourasaw celebrates his 400th birthday as a renewed man, thanks to Life Therapy.  The CES allows the general colonization of Bengal and Minerva and the settlement of Heimdall by Martians and Bliss by the aesthetic Transmigratory sect.
2326 The Confederation economy begins a period of rapid expansion.  Willy Donner emigrates from Terra to the NEAR habitat of Elysium II at Terra/Luna L4.  The Grand Senate approves a modification to the Colonial Administration Amendment, assigning eight sector governors to oversee the governor-ruled worlds and the non-colonial, non-government outposts and bases within their sector.  Reaction to the modified amendment is surprisingly muted and even most Reformists support it.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Dionysus and Bacchus, the settlement of New Rome by Orthodox Roman Catholics, and of Purgatory by the entire congregation of the True Church of Christ (Mendota).
2327 The All Terran Teleportation Network is complete with twenty major and four hundred minor hubs at its core.  Basic terraformation work on Vulcan finishes, with the atmosphere fully breathable; CES scientists estimate that additional work to moderate the climate will take another century.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Gladsheim by Kalmarans led by Duke Tor's younger brother Odin, Solomon by Reformed Jews, and after some controversy, Quetzacoatl by Aztec cultists and Franklin by American Caucasian separatists.
2328 NEAR deports Willy Donner, but Terra refuses to accept him back; turning down offers to settle on Mars or Kalmar, Donner emigrates to Bengal, where his great-uncle is governor.  The CES authorizes the general colonization of Balder, Perseus and Virgil and the colonization of Pax by the Universal Peace Society.
2329 At a party conference in Rome, the United Faith Party officially calls for an emancipation of all AS naturals, abolition of the creation of additional biological or mechanical artificial Sentients, and the immediate ban on Companion Guides; but a motion to renew condemnation of Life Therapy does not pass.  Repeater Stations complete the teleportation network between all Terra/Luna-based NEAR habitats.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Bolivar by South Americans, Biafra by Ibo nationalists and the general settlement of Hestia and Alexander.  The Alimeen settle Eternal Fog.
2330 At the pre-election conference on Mars, Yatindra Gupta throws his support to the Donnerist faction and the Reformed Party adopts PsychoMacroEconomics and a Federal Constitution as party planks; they do not carry the election.  The OP and the Horizon Party form a right-wing ruling coalition, excluding the weakened Conservative Party.  After much debate, the Alimeen delegation withdraws from active participation in the Grand Senate, seating themselves only as observers, though they clearly disfavor both a Federal Constitution and much OP governing policy.  The CES Fairweather discovers stone age amphibian Quanna in the Aquarius (5) Sector.  The CES authorizes French colonization of Napoleon, Japanese settlement of Diakoku, African settlement of Kongo and general settlement of Emerald.
2331 The economy continues a seven year expansion, leading to a lessening of unrest Confederation-wide. Teleportation booth networks reach completion on Luna, Mars and Atlantis.  The CES authorizes the general settlement of Selene and Frigg, the colonization of New Armenian by Armenian nationalists and the settlement of Saud by remnants of the exiled Saudi royal family.
2332 After a fiery speech in the Grand Senate by the Duke of Texas that supports the political and economic status quo and brands Reformed and United Faith Party members seditious, superstitious and shortsighted, the Confederation begins crackdowns against the leadership of those parties.  Despite the present prosperity, Resident unrest spreads on Terra and religious violence begins to increase.  The CES authorizes the general settlement of Themis and Phoebus, the colonization of Teutonia by German nationalists and Jefferson by American nationalists.
2333 Atlantis, Libertas, Mars, the Belt, Kalmar, and seven other "Odin Pact" colonies begin actively obstructing Confederation policy.  A Reformed Party activist assassinates the governor of Icarus.  Retired Liberal leader Viggo Turki, considered by many the father of the Confederation, offers to host a summit between Gupta and Timmins on Atlantis, but the week-long talks resolve little.  The CES authorizes the general settlement of Excalibur, Lemuria, and Phoenicia and the colonization of New Java by Indonesian nationalists.
2334 Confederation Marines raid the Reformed Party headquarters on Atlantis, arresting six top leaders on charges of subversion.  The Martian government refuses Confederation Marine access to Gupta's estates in Tharsis, precipitating a crisis defused by Alimeen Senators.  In October, the Second Donner Depression occurs as predicted when the financial collapse of several major debt-ridden transworld corporations precipitates a cascading financial crisis.  The CES authorizes the colonization of Vishnu by Indian nationalists, New Texas by American nationalists and the general settlement of Regina and Halcyon.
2335 As the financial crisis worsens, lower class Citizens join Residents in riots across Terra and NEAR. Confederation Marines use lethal force to disperse a march on the Terran Capitol in Byzantium, killing eight hundred protesters.  The Reformed Party renews calls for a constitutional convention and publishes a Donnerist prediction for a third depression if current policies continue.  Grand Senate election results indicate a dramatic shift to the Reformed Party and the United Faith Party, who announce that they will form a coalition with the Libertas First Party to enfranchise all Residents and radically restructure the Confederation economy along Donnerist lines even before calling a new constitutional convention.  In the closing days of the old Senate session, the rightist coalition declares the United Faith Party unconstitutional for violating the separation of church and state and issues warrants charging the leadership of the Reformed Party with treason.  Atlantis secedes from the Confederation on September 22nd.  By year's end, Libertas, Mars, the Belt, and nearly half of the other colonies follow suit; the Secession War begins.  On New Year's Eve, a massive naval mutiny led by Captain Anne Sandoval provokes the First Battle of Mars.  Loyalist forces bombard Deimos, shattering the moon and destroying the University.  A bombardment of the Tharsis region kills Yatindra Gupta and his household.  Before suspending Colonial Office reviews, the CES authorizes the settlement of Home by American Indian activists and the general settlement of Drakkon, though no CES authorities verify if the transport vessel Asimov ever reached Drakkon.
2336 Class warfare erupts on Terra and Venus, with Confederation Marines defending Nobility and upper class Citizen enclaves; tens of millions die in chaotic raids and sabotage that damages the power, data and teleportation networks.  The Duke of Texas assumes command of the Loyalist naval force, ordering a mustering at Luna.  Rebel naval forces recapture Mars, seizing Troilus and several major Asteroid Belt naval installations before engaging the Loyalist fleet in the Great Terran Orbital Battles, where heavy fighting destroys many Terra/Luna habitats, killing nearly two million.  Terra and Venus suffer through heavy Rebel orbital bombardments and growing surface battles.  Rebels seize most interstellar installations, including every major CES base, and bombard Loyalist colonies in hit-and-run attacks.  Surface combat spreads on many colony worlds with fractious populations.  The Alimeen proclaim neutrality and withdraw to their own six systems; some Khzraut factions join the war on different sides, but mostly continue to attack each other.  By year's end the Loyalist fleet controls only Sol from Terra sunward (including Venus, Mercury and some NEAR asteroid habitats) and a few scattered interstellar colonies.  A Rebel convention on Atlantis names Viggo Turki as interim President and Anne Sandoval as Grand Admiral, and calls for talks aimed at creating a federal interstellar government.
2337 A special session of the Loyalist Grand Senate at Byzantium proclaims Grand Admiral August Timmins, Duke of Texas, as Lord Protector.  Surface warfare rages on Terra and Venus, with battle lines slowly forming out of the chaos and refugees streaming into self-proclaimed neutral cities.  The Loyalist fleet breaks out from Terra, beginning the Siege of Mars, destroying a Rebel fleet at the Battle of Kirkwood in the Belt, and launching waves of raiders into the colonies, bombarding Rebel worlds.  Loyalist and Rebel fleets clash at the Great Battle of Libertas where Rebel forces under Sandoval destroy both remaining Hellkings and scatter Timmins's First Assault Fleet.  At the Battle of Vulcan, Loyalists, then Rebels, bombard the world before meeting in an inconclusive engagement; all terraformation work stops on Vulcan.  Paradise proclaims itself a neutral world.  Rebel forces destroy neutral naval installations to prevent them from falling to the Loyalists.
2338 The Lord Protector names his sons Alfred and Arnam as Dukes of Texas and California, respectively, and consolidates his hold on Terran North America and South America.  At the Great Battle of Atlantis, a concentration of Loyalist forces fails to overwhelm the defenses of the Atlantian system and retreats first to Proxima, then to Sol.  At the Great Belt Battle, Loyalists destroy much of the Belt's industry before retreating to Mars.  Rebel forces finally break the Loyalist siege at the Second Battle of Mars late in the year.
2339 At the First Great Battle of Terra, the Rebel Second Fleet under Admiral Patel devastates large areas of Terra's surface, with attacks killing over a hundred million people, including a bombing of Houston that kills Duke Alfred.  Luna suffers heavy industrial losses as the Rebel fleet withdraws to Mars after a Loyalist counterattack.  The Lord Protector recalls all interstellar squadrons to defend Terra from attack.
2340 At the Second Great Battle of Terra, the Rebel Combined Fleet fails to destroy the massed Loyalist Navy, but conquers Luna in an orbital and ground offensive.  The Siege of Terra begins.
2341 Venus falls to Rebel ground forces after the bloody Battle of Cleopatra's Rim.  In December, Lord Protector August Timmins dies in a skirmish in Terran orbit; his son Arnam, recognizing a lost cause, refuses to assume the leadership position, deferring to his older brother on Tyr.
2342 At the Third Great Battle of Terra, Rebel forces crush the Loyalist fleet and begin bombarding Terran Loyalist positions.  Loyalist troops on Terra offer an unconditional surrender.  The Confederation lies in ruins, with industry shattered and billions dead.  Rebel leaders meet on Titan to plan a new constitutional convention.  In the solar system, relief efforts begin, but are hampered by distribution problems.  Contact becomes sporadic beyond the core of the colonial worlds.
2343 Leaders of the United Faith Party delegation withdraw from the Titan Accords after talks collapse over the issues of Life Therapy treatments and artificial Sentients.  Fighting begins between Religious and Reformed forces on Terra and Venus.  The Battle of Iapetus marks an irrevocable split between Religious and Reformist naval forces after a Religious mutiny kills both Admirals Sandoval and Patel.  The Second Phase of the Secession War begins.
2344 Paradise erupts into Reformed versus Religious violence that ends in the Battle of Paradise, where the Religious Colonial Fleet defeats a Reformed squadron and bombards enemy positions.  The Reformed Fleet struggles to consolidate and remove Religious mutineers from ship's crews.  Ground combat continues on Terra and Venus and internal warfare destroys or damages several NEAR habitats.
2345 Most of the Religious Fleet retreats to the colonies after defeat at the Third Battle of Mars.  The Reformed fleet consolidates at Ceres and sweeps the Solar system of hostile vessels, but refrains from bombarding Religious surface troop formations on Terra and Venus.
2346 Reacting to a massing of Religious forces, the Reformed Fleet wins a pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Amaterasu, then returns to secure positions at Sol, Atlantis, Libertas and Kalmar.  An attempt by Viggo Turki of Atlantis and John Anderson of Libertas to proclaim a Human Federation fizzles from lack of Solar participation.
2347 While Viggo Turki is campaigning for his Federation in the Belt, Moslem fanatics crash a one-kilometer diameter asteroid into Juno, killing half a million Belters, Turki, and the dreams of Federation.  The Religious Fleet overruns the naval depots at Tripoli and Champa, rearming for a push towards Sol.
2348 The Religious fleet masses and strikes inward, meeting the combined might of the Reformed fleets at the inconclusive Great Battle of Delphi.  After Delphi, neither side retains the resources to conduct a prolonged space campaign.  The Dark Ages begin on most colony worlds as the remaining starships restrict themselves to operating near Solar space.  The Reformed Solar Fleet begins supporting surface military operations against Religious forces on Terra and Venus.
2349 Loyalist Nobility and Reformed forces form the Combined Venusian Legion and crush the Religious armies on Venus with help from the Reformed Solar Fleet.  Duke Arnam of California requests and receives Reformed assistance in his campaigns against Religious forces in northern Mexico.  The Religious Grand Army seizes Byzantium.
2350 Major ground fighting on Terra ceases with the defeat of the Religious Grand Army at the Battle of Gallipoli and an armistice in North America.
2351 The Religious Fleet suffers a fatal blow after a revolt by colonists on Champa cripples or destroys all but three vessels.
2352 Venus partitions itself into sixteen near autonomous duchies.  A last attempt by Mars and Atlantis to convene a new constitutional convention fails.
2353 Libertas withdraws from the Reformed Alliance and takes control of the Libertas Fleet.  Fighting winds down on most worlds.  Resources are scarcely enough to support life, much less civilization on many worlds.
2354 The Belt withdraws from the Reformed Alliance, effectively ending even a provisional interstellar government.
2355 Libertine raiders enter the Solar System to plunder the Troilus Skunkworks and fight off a Belter counterattack in the last space engagement of the war.  The Dark Ages begin.

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