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The Late Consolidation Period



The Late Consolidation Period is also known as the Era of Warring States.  In this period, warfare ranged upon and between Terra's continents, five major wars engulfed the Solar system and four interstellar conflicts rocked the recontacted interstellar colonies.  But by the period's end in 2789CE, Rogar Farrar had proclaimed the Empire of Humanity, having sequentially united by force of arms and diplomacy America, Terra, the Solar system and seventy-nine interstellar Human and Alimeen inhabited worlds.

Among recontacted interstellar worlds, the period 's hallmark was growing prosperity marred by occasional Libertine-sponsored piracy and resultant warfare.  The first Libertine War of 2610-2612CE was a battle between the Kalmar Pact and a Libertas Union hoping to expose the Pact's weaknesses.  Though Libertas lost that gamble, the war and its client states, and then suffered three years of humiliating postwar occupation, it did succeed in aggravating Pact divisions.  In the ensuing decades, Amaterasu and Vulcan left the organization and Atlantis and Paradise became more distant from Kalmar in policy.  Even with the adoption of a Planetary Congress in 2630CE, Pact relations between member states were often stormy, with Apollo, Hercules and Prometheus at times at odds with King Tor's policies.  Libertas reacted to the war and occupation with growing resentment and began arming and supporting privateer merchantmen in the 2620s.

The Kalmar Pact continued a slow expansion through the 27th century, and upon King Tor's death in 2709CE, his daughter, Queen Katrina took leadership of the Pact Advisory Council.  In response to Sympathetic demands, she aggressively increased contact missions, expanding the Pact to ultimately include over half the surviving colony worlds. 

Libertas maintained its passive-aggressive support of piracy for well over a century, always bowing to Pact pressure, but never fully ending support.  It reestablished its Union with Aeneas and Freedom in 2699CE, two years after intervening and effectively annexing Amaterasu.  Fears of Libertine aggression prompted Vulcan to rejoin the Kalmar Pact in 2702CE.  King John's policy of abandoning his privateers whenever pressured finally faltered after Vulcan terrorists goaded Libertas into attacking the Vulcan and precipitating the Second Libertine War of 2756-2762CE, a conflict that demonstrated the shift in power towards a reunited Terra.

Hachiman entered the interstellar scene, seizing Heaven in 2723CE, establishing the Hachiman Empire under Hideki Tanaka in 2734CE and conquering or settling over a dozen worlds by 2770CE.

In the Solar system, the trend, accentuated by occasional conflict, was one of gradual Venusian dominance at the expense of Martian decline.  In the First Mercury War of 2633-2636CE, Venus attacked Martian dominance of the Solar system at Mercury, and let its larger economy carry it to a victory that cost Mars control of the innermost planet and cost Emperor Albert Kagnon-Mellon his throne, and ultimately his life.  Martian decline was further evident after the Martian War of 2711-2714CE, where Venus, the Belt and Luna allied to strip Mars of its Outer System holdings, transferring those to Belt control.

On Terra, warfare was almost constant.  But, outside of Europe and America, conflict had evolved from clashes between local warlords to clashes between growing nations.  The long Asian War of 2657-2677CE ended with the ascendancy of James Hu as Emperor of Asia.  The Brazilian War of 2668-2672CE set into motion events leading to the establishment of the Incan Empire in 2683CE.  In North America, Rogar Farrar rose to prominence in wars between 2702CE and 2714CE that unified the continent, and precipitated the American War of 2714-2716CE that united North and South America under Rogar's Imperial banner.  Additional wars in the 2720s saw Asia conquer Australia and America occupy Britain.  In 2729CE, America and Asia clashed in the European War, a conflict that remained limited in its execution and ended in an armistice in 2735CE that led to security coordination between the two realms.  A marriage between Rogar and Hanna followed in 2739CE, and a peaceful union that joined all of Humanity's homeworld into the Terran Empire, ruled by the Emperor and Empress, occurred in 2740CE.  The twelve billion residents on Terra represented over half the Human population in 2740CE, and the unity of the Terran Empire transformed the world into the leading Human power.

The System War of 2743-2744CE proved Terra's strength, when it aided Mars against the other Solar powers and quickly brought the war to a successful conclusion.  After the war, Terra absorbed Luna as an Autonomous Kingdom in 2745CE and Mars retook control of the Outer System.

Terran intervention in the Second Libertine War during 2761CE and its subsequent seizure of Amaterasu marked Terra's emergence on the interstellar stage and was instrumental in ending that conflict, though Rogar was incensed that the Pact allowed Libertas to retain control of Amaterasu with the Treaty of Ishtar City.

In 2763CE, Terra supported Mars in the Second Mercury War, wherein Mars regained control of Sol's innermost planet after Venus surrendered to a Terran blockade in 2765CE.

In 2770CE, Libertas intervened on Eden, prompting the Pact, now without the membership of an increasingly nationalistic Atlantis, to declare war, starting the Third Libertine War.  The Solar states, concerned with internal affairs, remained neutral in this conflict and the 2774CE armistice recognized Libertas Union control of Eden and Thebes.

In 2775CE Terra and Mars announced a union of Empires.  Venus reacted to the union by attacking Martian positions on Mercury, starting the Third Mercury War, a conflict where the Belt sided with the growing Terran might.  After Venus's defeat in 2776CE, Rogar proclaimed the Solar Empire, uniting the system under his rule. 

Emperor Rogar used his new resources and five hundred year old blueprints to begin secret construction of three planet buster Hellkings in the Solar Belt.  Atlantis, Libertas and Hachiman furtively united in an anti-Pact TriWorld Alliance, initiating the Pact War in 2784CE with raids on Kalmar Pact facilities.  In the following year, the Solar Empire intervened, forcing each Alliance world in turn to surrender before the Hellking fleet, thus ending the war by early 2787CE.  With Rogar's Solar Empire clearly dominant, negotiations for a united realm to include all but the Hachiman worlds began, ending in the dissolution of the Kalmar Pact and the formation of the Empire of Humanity in 2789CE.


The Era of Warring States was marked by rivalries and occasional alliances between growing factions, both on Terra and across the Solar and interstellar worlds.

The long struggle between the Kalmar Pact and Libertas spanned the era and demonstrated King John's considerable political acumen, as he maintained pressure on the Pact for most of a century and a half though pirate intermediaries, only twice failing to avert all-out conflict with the Pact, and surviving those encounters and the Terran Hellking fleet to become a founding member of the Empire of Humanity and a confidant of Emperor Rogar I.

The Kalmar Pact grew slowly during the 27th century.  It evolved with the inclusion of a Planetary Congress in 2630CE, a body with more symbolic meaning than policy power.  Pact strength was sapped by personality conflicts between King Tor and King Karl of Atlantis and policy disagreements between To and more liberal and expansionist or Sympathetic governments.  After Katrina assumed her father's throne in 2709CE and pushed an expansionist policy, relations with the Sympathetics improved, but Atlantis remained at odds over leadership issues, seeing their preeminence as the first, wealthiest and most advanced interstellar world supplanted by Kalmar's central role in the Pact organization.  Atlantis remained a sullen member of the Pact until withdrawing in 2766CE, mostly in response to Katrina's increasingly imperious role.

The establishment and growth of the Hachiman Empire in the 28th century changed interstellar dynamics and confounded the Pact with a rival more powerful and potentially dangerous than Libertas.  Unwilling to risk a violent and prolonged interstellar conflict that might bring upon a new dark age, the Pact essentially appeased Hachiman, trying at best to limit the Empire's growth.

In the Solar system, Emperor Joseph II managed Venus's rise as the dominate power, twice defeating Mars and overseeing the dismemberment of its Solar empire.  Under Emperor Charles, Mars regained a imperious altitude, but its victory in the Second Mercury War was a direct result of Terran involvement, and Emperor Charles was at best a caricature of his uncle Albert.  The Belt and Luna continued to loose influence to the larger two planetary states, eventually becoming part of the Solar Empire, where they maintained the fiction of becoming Autonomous Kingdoms until signing the Imperial Charter in 2789 and restoring their Nobilis Republican governments.

On Terra, the growth of continental empires and eventual unification was a constant trend throughout the period, with Rogar's rapid establishment of empire in the early 28th century setting the stage for his marital and political union with Empress Hanna of Asia in 2740CE.  Emperor Rogar soon became the senior partner of this initially equal union, though he adopted many of the bureaucratic reforms of Hanna's father and valued his wife's role as a diplomatic and shrewd political analyst. 

The initial Terran Empire was more liberal than the Empire of Humanity would become, as Rogar's force of will was able to overcome Nobilis conservatism in treatment of peasants and Constructs, but compromises necessary for the building of a interstellar state conceded Nobilis dominance in the form of Member self-government, a bargain which proved successful for building a government that would ultimately last nearly two millennia.  Rogar's Imperial Charter was a simple document, based in form more on the American constitution than the detailed, often contradictory texts of previous organizations like the United Nations, Terran Commonwealth or Terran Confederation.  It made the Emperor master of an interstellar state of self-governing member worlds, and though the Emperor was a hierarchal dictator atop a Huist bureaucracy, he was bound by the rule of law.


The peak technology of Human space advanced from early to late macrojump during the Late Consolidation period, but more importantly, the varied technologies of recontacted worlds began to reach higher levels.  In the 28th century access to technology and the associated rise in living standards and medical care for Terrans began to dramatically improve.

By the dawn of the Empire of Humanity, Terran and Solar technology was a match for the Kalmar Pact and approximately equivalent to M'kkiae War era Confederation levels, though more advanced in biological sciences and less advanced in energy and hyperstring physics.  A brief renewed flirtation with robotics died on Terra as more than enough skilled Human labor was available, leaving only Atlantis to specialized in sentient robotics.  Nobles on Venus and Kalmar begin using artificial conception and maturation chambers to combat Nobilis female infertility over the age of one hundred, resulting in a large increase of Nobilis births in established families and greater status for Nobilis women.

The lower classes on Terra did not have widespread access to recovered technologies until after the unification in 2740CE, and even through generous public aid, basic services to the billions of proletarian Terrans remained in the mid or late fusion era even in 2789CE.


The Kalmar Pact began developing a distinct culture as contact between worlds became more common and Pact media distribution penetrated deeper into member world's society.  Anglic was renormalized, with the clipped speech of Kalmar becoming an interstellar standard.  Ostentatious Delphian styles dominated the Pact upper and middle class during the mid and late 27th century, with more bourgeois Herculean unisex suits and passive immersion trivee dramas becoming popular in the early twenty-eightieth.  As travel became affordable for the upper class, resort spas on Paradise, Niagara, Romulus and Ares became popular with the elite.  Late in the Pact era Katrina's Bejeweled style and her emphasis on formality and protocol began to influence Pact culture, especially in the two dozen "core" Pact worlds.

The Solar system saw a rise in Venusian cultural norms, even on Terra, though not on Mars.  Venusian emphasis on moderated commerce and non-confrontational modes of expression spread to Luna and the civilized Belt, though the Venusian toga did not survive the transition to low gravity and the subdued Belter active jumpsuit became a popular style even among Venus's middle classes.  Solar society, even on Mars, essentially banned cybernetic enhancements, though more from cultural revulsion than formal abolition, and biological solutions to medical problems became the norm.  Martian emphasis on martial temperaments and values continued throughout the period, and most respectable Martians spent at least a few years of their youth in military or paramilitary units before returning to civilian life.

While Terra retained its multicultural society, increased access to mass media helped moderate regional differences in dialect and culture, with a mixed Asian-African-American cultural consensus slowly emerging after unification.  Emperor Rogar worked to lessen oppression and encouraged mobility in Terran society, but centuries of class structure limited the extent of his influence.


Chronology Table


After occupying Saigon, the Chinese Empire absorbs Indochina and the hydrofoils of the Chinese Imperial Navy begin anti-piracy raids against Philippine and Malaysian city-states.  Libertine and Pact starships simultaneously re-contact the colony of Eden.  After Eden's government prolongs negotiations with both organizations, Libertas launches a preemptive military strike on Kalmar, starting the First Libertine War.  Atlantis and the Alimeen do not remaining neutral as Libertas has anticipated, so the combined Pact forces easily defeat the Libertine strike fleet at the Battle of Kalmar losing one frigate, while destroying four of the five attacking vessels.  Jonas Martin becomes Commodore of the Kalmar Pact Navy, which begins converting ten merchantmen for naval duty.


Kalmar Pact naval forces backed by ground troops from Kalmar, Atlantis and Hercules seize and garrison Olympus.  Pact squadrons destroy Libertine bases on Aeneas and Freedom and blockade the two worlds.


The Kalmar Pact besieges Libertas.  Under threat of planetary bombardment, and with Pact troop ships arriving in system, Libertas surrenders.  The Pact dissolves the Libertas Union and lands 10,000 occupation troops on Libertas to extract reparations payments.  The colony on Purgatory, long stable with a population of about 1,000 living in three primitive villages, suffers a blight, followed by famine and disease, killing 95% of the population; the survivors die off within a generation.

2613 Eden formally declines to join the Kalmar Pact.  Libertine assassins blow up a shuttle carrying Commodore Martin, killing him and six aides; Pact forces bomb three rebellious Libertine towns in retaliation and hold King John under house arrest.  The Pact occupation government on Olympus executes King Harko of Illios for crimes against his people.


Failing to receive prompt tribute, Central Asian Grand Khan Ali II orders his army to occupy the western coastal cities of India, then strikes eastward with hovercraft armor, reaching the swamps at the mouth of the Ganges.  The Duchies of Northern and Southern New Zealand join the Australian Confederation.


Facing growing terrorist and guerrilla attacks, Pact occupation forces withdraw from Libertas, restoring its independence.

2616 The Duke of the Upper Nile joins the CAEU, inviting a peacekeeping force to secure his northern and western borders.


An Alimeen-led Pact attempt to contact the Khzraut colony on Fortuna ends in the destruction of the three ship Alimeen contact squadron.


A special Kalmar Pact conference on Atlantis permanently interdicts Khzraut space and admits Olympus to the Kalmar Pact.  The Pact blockade of Aeneas and Freedom ends, but neither world accepts invitations to join the Pact.  The scouts Glenn and Grissom contact the inhabitants of the colony of Levant, which joins the Pact.  The Pact releases the last merchantmen from naval duty, though all keep their weaponry as part of the naval reserve.  A CAEU task force occupies Cairo to subdue warlord activities in the lower Nile valley.

2619 Libertas begins building a fleet of over a dozen armed merchantmen to replace its destroyed or confiscated fleet.


The Chinese Empire begins a massive amphibious invasion of the Philippines to wipe out pirate strongholds.

2621 A dispute over monetary policy between Kalmar and Atlantis leads to a loosening of Pact economic control, allowing freer capital movements and ending all restrictions on trade routes.  The Pact privatizes all commercial starships.  The Kalmar Pact encompasses thirty-nine populated systems and has ninety-two registered commercial starships, nearly all 30m merchantmen of various configurations.


Amaterasu withdraws from the Kalmar Pact after the election of an isolationist government, but maintains limited trade relations.

2623 Libertine merchantmen privateers begin raiding and trading on worlds both within and outside the Pact. 
2624 Two Libertine raiders attack an outlying mining settlement on Felix.  The Martian navy borders and searches unauthorized Libertine trades off Neptune.


Chinese Emperor James visits Manila, declaring the Philippines pacified and steps up amphibious campaigns in Malaysia.  Citing policy differences, Paradise stops sending delegates to Pact conferences.  

2626 The Kalmar Pact Navy reduces its size to five frigates, but calls up five auxiliaries.  The Pact authorizes the construction of four new 30m scouts to replace its aging fleet.
2627 A Libertine privateer attacks and boards the Pact freighter Agate in the Eta Cassiopeia system, off Cyclops.  A series of earthquakes on Diakoku permanently changes the course of the colony's two main rivers, leading to a calamitous decline of civilization. 


After a Pact squadron arrives in Libertas orbit, King John formally disavows responsibility for privateers and allows the Pact to station ships and personnel in the Tau Ceti and UV Ceti systems to monitor compliance.  An estimated six privateers begin operating from independent bases and temporary depots stocked by legitimate Libertine traders.  The Khanate of Central Asia invades Iran to combat banditry and end support for Afghan rebels.


Libertine pirates sack Camelot and establish the world as their raiding base.  Mars increases tariffs on Venusian NB technology to protect its own industry.  The first new Pact scouts, Gagarin and Titov, enter service.

2630 In response to growing discontent with the Advisory Council process, the Kalmar Pact updates its charter to create the Planetary Congress, which consists of ambassadors from all member worlds and proposes policies to the Advisory Council.  Paradise sends a new ambassador to Kalmar.  Libertine pirates raid Diana.  The Pact scouts Nikolayev and Popovich enter service and the four aging 20m scouts are retired.
2631 Flooding of the lower Mississippi River leads to the Flood Plains War when the Dukes of Arkansas and Missouri attack Illinois; the conflict terminates in stalemate after the destruction of St. Louis by nuclear weapons.
2632 The Pact trader Chrysanthemum vanishes on a run between Hercules and Kalmar.  The Pact scout Titov contacts the colony of Agade, whose Nobilis feudal leaders choose to join the Pact.


The First Mercury War erupts between Mars and Venus after Venusian warships launch a surprise bombardment against Martian military and tax authority installations on Mercury.  In retaliation, the Martian navy destroys Venusian orbital stations and blockades the world.  Martian commerce raiders seize or destroy Venusian shipping throughout the Solar System.  The Chinese Imperial Army invades and conquers the Thai Electorate after uncovering Thai nobles aid to Malaysian pirates.  The Indonesian Confederacy joins with the Malay states to resist the Chinese invasion and the CAEU enacts sanctions against China.  The Kingdom of the Incas invades and conquers Bolivia and the upper Amazon basin.  The Pact scout Popovich reaches Camelot and detects two Libertine pirates in system; the Popovich jumps before being detected and reports back to Kalmar.


Venus defeats the Martian blockade squadron in a series of engagements in Venusian orbit, ending the orbital embargo.  Orbital and ground battles for the control of Mercury begin with fighting on and below the surface at the Gupta and Australis stations.  A Pact naval task force of four frigates, five auxiliaries and two scouts attacks and eradicates the Libertine pirate base on Camelot, destroying two pirate vessels and capturing a third.  A liberated Camelot joins the Kalmar Pact as a full member.


Faced with a growing Venusian fleet presence and an untenable ground position, the Martian navy evacuates its army forces from Mercury under a flag of truce.  A subsequent raid on Mercury by a brigade of orbit-deployed Martian commandos surrenders after failing to seize any surface installations.  Venusian squadrons engage Martian naval elements throughout the inner Solar System and fight a skirmish on approach to Mars orbit.  Australia invades Indonesia and quickly gains control of the island of New Guinea. The Chinese Empire conquers mainland Malaysia and invades Borneo; Indonesian Nobles offer to end the war, but China demands an unconditional surrender and naval control of the Java Sea.  A group of Libertine pirates establish a base on Blackbeard, a moon of a large singleton brown dwarf 6.5 light years from Deseret.  The Kalmar Pact authorizes the construction of two 50m cruisers and four additional frigates to provide an anti-piracy force.  Alimeen gravstar colony vessels settle Warm Wind.


Mars accepts an armistice after Venus wins the Battle of March Second in Martian orbit and the Belt indicates readiness ready to enter the war.  Martian Emperor Albert abdicates in favor of his half-nephew Stanislov, who is also a cousin of Emperor Joseph II of Venus.  Disgruntled Martian naval officers assassinate Albert at his Escalante estate.  Mars ends protective tariffs on Venusian products and allows Venusian business offices to open in the Outer System.  Chinese forces defeat the combined Indonesian fleet at the Battle of Madura.

2637 Emperor Stanislov moves the Martian seat of government back to Lowell.  Three Libertine pirates attack Deseret, destroying the orbital station and raiding outlying settlements.  The Deseret Defense Force destroys one pirate vessel in a suicide attack.  Chinese Imperial Marines pacify Sumatra.


Chinese forces sack Jakarta, ending Indonesian resistance.  Joint Chinese-Australian naval patrols fight the continuing pirate menace in the Banda Sea.  The CAEU fails to extend sanctions against China.  Four pirate vessels raid Deseret, destroying the city of Youngstown with a W-bomb attack and extorting precious metals and food stocks from the inhabitants.  The Pact cruisers Zhang and Johannessen enter service.


William Kagnon-Mellon, younger brother of Albert, leads a coup that ends in the assassination of Martian Emperor Stanislov.  William becomes Emperor of Mars, and concedes Venusian control over Mercury in return for recognition of his ascendance by Joseph II and the Venusian Parliament.  The Pact trader Orion's Belt visits Deseret and receives information on Libertine raids from the local government.  Three Libertine pirates make a slaver raid on Hermes, carrying off hundreds of villagers.


Emperor William moves the Martian seat of government back to Alberta and interns Emperor Albert's remains under the Crimson Pyramid.  A Kalmar Pact task force led by the Zhang intercepts the two pirate vessels returning to Deseret to extort tribute; destroying one ship and capturing the other.  With information from the Deseret encounter, the Pact task force attacks and destroys the pirate base on Blackbeard.  A subsequent raid destroys a pirate depot in the Hercules (1) Sector.


Emperor William purges the Martian military, arresting and executing over a hundred officers and forcing thousands more into retirement.  The Incan Army occupies northern Chile.  Central Asian Grand Khanate forces withdraw from Iran after negotiating an end to banditry and a cutoff of aid to the Afghan rebels.

2642 Deseret joins the Kalmar Pact after receiving assurances on religious protection and controls on media access for the domestic population.
2643 Chinese and Australian diplomats agree to common borders in Indonesia, with Australia occupying Ambon and the Chinese annexing Sulawesi.  Maxwell Biogenics purchases outright four medium-sized main Belt asteroids for use in risky research and development projects.


Vulcan withdraws from the Kalmar Pact in reaction to new subsidy policies that channel more trade and assistance to more distant newer member worlds.


The Chinese Empire invades Burma to end smuggling and drug traffic. The Khanate of Central Asia occupies central India south to the Godavari River.  After pirates seize the trader Godiva, King Karl authorizes the formation of the Atlantian Interstellar Navy, with two frigates and eight 20m escorts.

2646 A series of undersea earthquakes on Venus and subsequent tsunamis devastate coastal regions in Lada and Aphrodite and shut down the PARVATT system; geologists determine that plate tectonics have begun on Venus.  Pact scouts Titov and Nikolayev contact the colony on Ghandi, establishing relations and negociating Pact membership for the struggling settlement.
2647 Additional earthquakes on Venus led to massive evacuations of coastal areas by all but Merman Constructs; efforts at earthquake control begin.  After a second pirate raid on Hermes, a Pact task force led by the Johannessen enters the Libertine system and demands that Libertas control its raiders; Libertas agrees to comply, but refuses to allow Pact monitoring of its macrojump merchant vessels.  Libertas effectively cuts its privateers loose, no longer actively supply them, but making no efforts to stop or report on their activities.
2648 A Pact advisory council resolution authorizes all member worlds to arm their interstellar vessels and recommends convoys for trading missions in systems not actively patrolled by the Pact navy.  Ten more Pact merchantmen receive upgraded weaponry as naval auxiliaries.


After the death of Countess Marina, the Incan Army occupies Panama and begins renovating the canal.

2650 The Terran General Assembly holds a conference in Rome, with African delegates pushing for an overturn of the Bogotá Declaration and for a permanent arbitration board to mediate international disputes.  China, Central Asia and the Kingdom of the Incans all refuse to agree to either proposal.  Pirates raid primitive Daedalus, seizing food and slaves; withdrawing as the Pact trader Castrovalva enters the system.


Emperor William uses Martian army troops to put down dissident activity on Mars and declares martial law in several cities. 

2652 The Pact frigate Nebula defeats two pirates over Hermes, crippling both pirate vessels and capturing the crew.
2653 Based on information gathered by the Nebula, a Pact task force discovers two recently abandoned pirate bases, one in the outer belt of a red dwarf, the other on the moon of a large rouge gas giant half a light year away.
2654 With convincing evidence that Isis's sun has ended its flare stage, Kalmar begins limited settlement on Isis to supplement the planet's small population and aid recovery.
2655 Venusian geologists gain control of the emerging crustal plates and propose modifications to allow the restoration of the PARVATT system.  Privateers raid the colonies of Rama and Aurora. 


The Chinese Empire claims control of the Bay of Bengal, occupying Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands as protectorates.  An explosion, probably from a disintegrating comet, destroys the colony of Kurdistan, killing all but a handful, who survive for a few decades in the devastated ruins.


The Asian War begins as Chinese and Central Asian forces clash after the Chinese Army advances to the Brahmaputra River.  Privateers begin annual tribute runs to Hector after conducting a demonstration W-bomb detonation.


The Asian War intensifies as Central Asian forces invade Xinjiang and the Chinese Army crosses the Sayan Mountains.  Attempts by Australian and African diplomats to negotiate an Asian cease-fire fail.

2659 The Chinese Army invades mainland India at Tuticorin and occupies Bangalore at its Count's invitation.  Chinese defense systems thwart a Grand Khanate missile strike on Bangalore and Pondicherry.  Resettlement of Venusian costal regions begins, though cities and towns incorporate protection against both earthquakes and tsunamis.
2660 China begins importing Martian HSPG armored vehicles.  The Kalmar Pact authorizes four additional scout vessels for survey work within Pact boundaries.  King Tor's younger daughter Lydia marries Paradisian Roban Kamarov, Count of Veedar; the couple settles on Kalmar.


The Chinese Imperial Army, with support from Martian advisors, breaks through the Central Asian lines near Hyderabad and sweeps north, gaining control of all India and forcing the retreat of Central Asian troops to the Indus River.


Olav Kamarov is born on Kalmar.  Grand Khan Ali II dies in victory at the Battle of Karaganda; his grandson, Ali III, becomes ruler of Central Asia and orders a withdrawal from Pakistan to strengthen his Eastern Front.  A Chinese missile attack on Central Asian positions fails, but a Grand Khanate counterstrike devastates Amritsar.  Under African and Australian pressure, both China and Central Asia agree to forgo the use of weapons of mass destruction.

2663 Emperor Joseph II of Venus makes the first transit in the restored PARVATT systems linking Venus's three continents.  The Asian War becomes a bloody of ground warfare against static positions along a five thousand kilometer front line.
2664 The Pact scouts Gagarin and Popovich contact the colony on Reich; the contact mission commanders deem the xenophobic local regime unsuitable for Pact membership, but make a pro-forma offer that is predictably rejected.


Central Asia withdraws from Afghanistan after loosing the Battle of Khyber Pass and the Battle of Kabul.  In South America, the Incas occupy the lawless southern regions of Chile.

2666 Chinese Imperial Marines invade Central Asia's Far East regions, overrunning territories until crossing the Lena River but withdrawing to fortified positions east of the Lena after the Battle of YakutskPirates begin annual tribute raids against the colony on Hsia.
2667 The Chinese Imperial Marines put down the mutinous Chinese 4th Army in Afghanistan.  Emperor William of Mars orders the construction of the massive Face of Mars (his) north of the Crimson Pyramid. 


Chinese Imperial Marines capture Irkutsk.  The Brazilian War begins when the Brazilian duchies unite to fight Incan economic exploitation of the upper Amazon basin.

2669 A Chinese Imperial summer offensive ends with the capture of all of Siberia east and north of the Ob River.  Maxwell Biogenics begins clinical trials of low-gravity genetic modifications to enabled humans to thrive indefinitely in gravity fields below .05 g and to limit adaptation problems when returning to standard gravity.


After China fails to break the fortified Ob Line, Imperial Marines strike south to occupy the Arabian Peninsula and the Chinese 1st Grav Army conquers Iran and begins an attack into Central Asia through Turkmenistan. 

2671 The Central Asian Army counterattacks in Turkmenistan, enveloping the Chinese 1st Army at the Battle of Kerki.  The Incan Army begins an airborne assault on Brazilian army positions throughout the middle Amazon region.


Central Asia breaks the restraint agreement on weapons of mass destruction and launches a mostly countered nuclear missile attack on Chinese position in Siberia and Iran; China exercises restraint and does not respond to the attacks, but begins a conventional bombardment of Tashkent.  The Treaty of La Paz ends the Brazilian War, with the Brazilian dukes granting concessions to the Incas in return for continued independence.  Raman authorities refuse to provide tribute to pirate raiders, prompting a conventional missile attack on the capital, but the pirates withdraw after raiding a few scattered settlements.

2673 The Chinese Imperial Army occupies Iraq.  The Pact scouts Titov and Nikolayev re-contact the failing colony on Tanith and the Pact accepts the world of iron age villages as a protectorate.


The Central Asian Army launches a failed offensive through the Caucasus mountains into Iran.  The surviving Terra/Luna NEAR habitats join the Lunar Republic in exchange for the technologies and support needed to keep their stations habitable.  The Belt Congress authorizes the availability of low-gravity genetic modification therapy for all Citizens.

2675 The Pact freighter Morning Star vanishes out of Hercules; authorities suspect a pirate hijacking.  The Chinese Imperial Army marches through Jordan and Palestine to the Mediterranean and seizes Turkey.  China attacks Central Asia through the Caucasus and conducts an amphibious landing south of Rostov.  
2676 Chinese Imperial forces sweep into Central Asia from all sides, but Ali III refuses to surrender, launching a failed missile attack on Chinese population centers.  Pirate raids on Aurora begin to occur on a nearly annual basis.
2677 Tashkent falls to the Chinese, ending the Asian War; Ali III is presumed dead.  James declares himself Emperor of Asia with western borders on the Sinai and the Don and Volga rivers. 


European nobles on the Asian border form the Eastern European Confederation at Warsaw and sign a peace and friendship treaty with the Empire of Asia.   The climate on the colony of Preussen begins to worsen as the world slips into an ice age, causing a rapid decline in population and driving the survivors to a nomadic existence.


Terran nobles meet at the Conference of Casablanca to work on mutual security concerns, an unspoken reference to Asian expansion, though Asian Emperor James disavows any territorial ambitions.


African Nobles including the Count of Pretoria and the Duke of Zambia begin funding increased settlement of Antarctica, drawing protests from the Kingdom of the Incas.  The Chinese Imperial Army announces a reduction of troop strengthen from five Battle Armies to three.  On Hachiman, Captain Hiroshi awakens after a 200 year hibernation and orders the remaining Battlestar complement awakened to finish developing an interstellar civilization.

2681 The Kalmar Pact authorizes a new class of 30m scouts to replace its aging Cosmonaut class vessels.


Emperor James of China dies of natural causes at the age of 650; his daughter Hanna becomes Empress of Asia.  At the Kalmar Pact bicentennial celebration on Kalmar, Kings Tor of Kalmar, Karl of Atlantis and President Henry Neroutsos of Hercules celebrate the union of thirty-five Human and eight Alimeen worlds with over two hundred million Human and three hundred million Alimeen residents and the progress made in achieving trade integration and technological parity throughout the Pact.


After defeating a uprising against Incan corporations by the Brazilian Nobility, the Incas occupy the rest of Brazil and the remaining independent South American cities and proclaim the Inca Empire, a federal South American state with a rotating elected Noble Emperor.


The Incan Nobility begins a colonization of Patagonia to enlarge their holdings.  The Narwhal, first of the new Kalmar Pact scouts enters service.  


Venusian diplomats seal an agreement for six of the remaining eleven NEAR asteroid habitat settlements to join the Venusian Empire.  Libertine pirates seize Thebes as a pirate base.  

2686 Emperor William celebrates the completion of the Face of Mars.
2687 With the Treaty of Hobart, Australia, the Inca Empire and the CAEU agree to divide claims in Antarctica, with the Incans gaining control of the Antarctic Peninsula, Australia annexing Wilkesland, and Africa holding the remaining territory.  


The Death King and his agents reappear in New Orleans, beginning a campaign of terror throughout the Duchy of Louisiana.

2689 The Kalmar Pact scout Baleen detects pirate activity during a pre-contact mission to Aurora and returns with a Pact fleet led by the Johannessen.  The governing council of Aurora welcomes the fleet and accepts Pact membership and protection.  


The Pact fleet destroys a pirate vessel at Aurora, but a second ship escapes.  Citing anti-government activities by exiled Brazilian Nobility, the Incas occupy Central America north to the Yucatan and annex the Lesser Antilles islands.


The Death King murders the Duke of Louisiana and his immediate family, taking control of the Duchy and expanding his control along the swamps of the Gulf Coast and the lower Mississippi Valley.


Libertine pirates raid Agade and Odin, destroying major cities and seizing booty and captives before withdrawing.  Pact naval patrols intensify and the Advisory Council authorizes the modernization of the fleet and the addition of four more frigates and five escorts.  The Asian Navy begins aggressive anti-piracy patrols in the Pacific Ocean, seizing Guam. 

2693 Empress Hanna of Asia authorizes a Asian Space Navy, buying three surplus Martian frigates and the Gherman Titov spaceport facility to serve as a geosynchronous base.


The Kalmar Pact scout Orca contacts the inhabitants of Inanna, whose leadership accepts Pact membership.  The Empire of Asia formally annexes all the islands of the North Pacific up to the International Date Line.  A Libertine pirate fleet of four vessels from Thebes raids Reich, and retreats with heavy casualties after sacking two cities.


The Death King maintains and expands control of the Duchies of East Texas, Arkansas and Mississippi through assassination and terror; refugees begin trickling westward from the Plains Duchies.

2696 A Brazilian exile group based in Havana claims responsibility for the assassination of Incan Emperor Antonio of Mendoza.  Fernando permanently reassumes the Inca crown. After failed negotiations with the Cuban government, the Incan army invades the island with airborne infantry troops.


Libertas sides with the loosing faction in a Amaterasu power struggle and occupies Amaterasu to reinstate their puppets as proxy rulers; a guerrilla war ensues, with Libertas pouring troops onto the world to maintain order in the cities.  Havana falls to the Incan army, but several wanted Brazilian exiles remain at large.


The Incan Empire annexes the entire Caribbean Sea Basin, occupying major cities and hunting down all but two of the remain fugitive Brazilians.  The Kalmar Pact debates sending aid to the Amaterasu Legitimist rebels, but only agrees to denounce Libertine aggression; Hercules independently begins secret shipments to the rebels. 


Libertas reinstates the Libertas Union, inviting Aeneas and Freedom to join the political and economic federation.  Death King terror spreads to the Rio Grande Valley and the border with Utah.  The Horde first appears as an organized military force and Death King-sponsored submarine and hovercraft pirates begin plying the Gulf of Mexico.


Libertine commandos and secret police ruthlessly stamp out the Legitimist guerrillas on Amaterasu, which formally joins the Libertas Union.  Baron Rogar Farrar of Pasadena begins campaigns in Baja California in favor of Jorge, a claimant to the Baja Duchy.  The Kalmar Pact scout Manatee contacts the rulers of the colony world of Zulu, who quickly join the Pact.

2701 The Time Travel Society emerges from hibernation and sends a delegation to Alice Springs.  After reviewing the world situation, twelve members decide to rejoin society, leaving fifty-two to sleep for another century.   Climatic conditions on Pruessen fall into terminal decline, with the surviving population fading to extinction after ice covers the entire southern continent.


Fearing Libertine aggression, Vulcan rejoins the Kalmar Pact.  Pressures of refugee migrations and Death King assassinations lead to the Nevada War, where Rogar Farrar defeats the Mormon Army of Utah and becomes the Archduke of the Pacific American Confederation.


Archduke Rogar launches the Second War of Destruction, crushing the Horde and destroying the Death King in a lightning campaign.  Rogar incorporates territory from the Arizona Corridor to the Duchy of Mississippi into the Pacific American Confederation.  The Kalmar Pact scout Orca contacts the remaining village on Mithras and its seventeen inhabitants; the Pact absorbs Mithras as a dependency and begins planning to establish a small naval base on the world.

2704 The Kalmar Pact scout Baleen surveys the failed colony of Hebe and determines that the flora is hostile to future colonization attempts; the Pact establishes a research station on the planet's surface.  The Libertine government begins providing assistance and ships to the pirate regime on Thebes.   A protracted drought and subsequent plague wipes out the faltering colony on Diakoku.


Venus and the Belt sign a formal military alliance in ceremonies on Vesta; subsequent agreements provide for a trade of discounted Venusian biomedical products for a large shipbuilding contract that greatly enlarges the Venusian Navy.  Archduke Rogar reorganizes his realm into the Archduchy of Western America, incorporating Utah, Colorado, and Kansas. The Northern Campaigns begin between the new Archduchy and several northern and Midwestern duchies backed by the Dukes of Georgia and Virginia. The Incan Empire invades and conquers northern Mexico in a futile search for Baroness Aracruz, assassinator of Emperor Antonio.


Archduke Rogar besieges and sacks Chicago, finishing his conquest of the entire old United States west of the eightieth parallel with the Peace of Gary recognizing his sovereignty over these gains.  Western America and the Incan Empire reach a border agreement after Rogar agrees to aid in the search for Baroness Aracruz.  A series of massive volcanic eruptions strike the colony of Frigg causing a five year long dark winter that kills most of the population.


After two prototype failures, Mars completes the 15m macrojump vessel Phoenix and sends it on a test mission to Atlantis.  The Eastern Europe Confederation crumbles into low-level warfare after various members support rival claimants for the Bavarian throne.


The Kalmar Pact scout Narwhal contacts Rama, which joins the Pact in return for protection against pirate activity.   Lunar and Venusian diplomats sign a secret anti-Martian alliance.  The North American Unification War begins as Georgian-led eastern and Canadian duchies attack Western America.


King Tor of Kalmar dies of natural causes; Katrina becomes Queen of Kalmar and chair of the Pact Advisory Council.  In an address to the Planetary Congress, Katrina proposes a more aggressive approach to expansion and re-contact, arguing that a civilized interstellar community will lessen the risks of piracy and war.  The Martian Empire begins construction of a small fleet of macrojump frigates and merchantmen.  Archduke Rogar of Western America orders the execution of his wife, Elizabeth, after she becomes implicated in an espionage ring; later, Atlanta falls to Rogar's forces after the Battle of Decatur and resistance in the American Southeast crumbles.

2710 The Kalmar Pact begins a fleet modernization campaign to replace its two aging cruisers and six oldest frigates with a new fleet of three Type IIb cruisers and eight frigates plus an additional five escorts.  Martian diplomats make contact with the Libertine government and discuss a potential alliance.  The Western American army begins an offensive against the Canadian duchies, winning the Battle of Red River.


The Martian War begins with a surprise attack at the Battle of Troilus by a coalition of Venusian, Belter and Lunar forces; subsequent actions attack and overrun Martian positions in the Jovian Trojans.  A Coalition fleet begins the interdiction of Mars.  Western American troops occupy the duchies of New England on request of the Duke of Massachusetts and drive into the Duchy of New York, crossing the Hudson at the Battle of Troy.


The Imperial Martian Navy breaks the Coalition's siege, but an offensive against the Belt quickly stalls with a withdrawal after the Battle of April Fourteenth.  The Coalition seizes Martian outposts at Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, though the Jovian moons hold out, defeating the Coalition at the Battle of Callisto.  The Kalmar Pact scout Baleen contacts the struggling settlers on Penance, who decline an offer to join the Pact as a protectorate.  Buffalo and Toronto fall to the forces of the Archduke Rogar after an amphibious campaign on Lakes Eire and Ontario.  The last survivors on Preussen die under the onslaught of the ice age.


Coalition forces attack and occupy Charon and Pluto and agree to a neutrality pledge by remaining Kuiper settlements.  The Citizens of Europa revolt against their Martian Nobility and seize control of the world, aiding in the Battle of Ganymede, which forces the Martian Jupiter Fleet to withdraw.  Emperor William of Mars dies when his flagship Broadsword disintegrates during the Battle of Iris in the Belt; his son, Charles, ascends the throne and requests an immediate cease-fire.  Libertine pirates from Thebes raid Daedalus, destroying the Pact freighter Orion's Belt and the escort Viper.  The armies of Western America sweep though the Canadian duchies, meeting little resistance.


The Treaty of Copernicus ends the Martian War and the Belt gains administrative control of the Outer System and Jovian Trojans.  Mars becomes a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Charles and a Parliament of Nobles.  Venus achieves macrojump technology and sells the secret to other Solar governments.  After the pacification of Alaska and the Yukon, the Treaty of Chicago confirms Rogar Farrar as King of North America.  After receiving word that Rogar allowed the Baroness Aracruz to escape justice, the Incan Imperial Army crosses the Rio Grande, starting The American War.  A Kalmar Pact task force under command of Captain Lord Olav Kamarov aboard the new cruiser Shelton destroys the Libertine pirate base on Thebes and four pirate vessels.  A Pact Marine brigade occupies Thebes and executes captured pirates and Theban sympathizers.  The Pact scout Narwhal contacts the pre-industrial colonists on Odysseus; the world joins the Pact as a protectorate.  The Pact scout Manatee contacts the leadership of the colony on Hector, which joins the Pact as a full member.


After installing a friendly government, Kalmar Pact forces withdraw from Thebes.  The Pact scout Orca discovers the failed colony on Lenin.  After heavy ground and air fighting over the southern duchies of the North American Kingdom, King Rogar's forces regain the initiative from the Incas after the Battle of Houston.  North America begins ballistic and airborne commando insertions into Ecuador and Peru and purchases orbital combat craft from Mars.


Libertine pirates raid Daedalus, Hsia and Reich, and reestablish their base on Thebes, executing the Pact- sympathetic Nobility.  Venus completes its first macrojump vessel, the 13m Joseph II and conducts a test voyage to Atlantis.  Cuzco falls to a massive North American commando assault; Emperor Fernando dies in the storming of the Imperial Palace.  Rogar crowns himself Emperor of America, though pacification campaigns in Patagonia continue.  The Pact scout Orca contacts the colony on Tyche and the Baleen contacts the colony on Ares, both worlds join the Kalmar Pact.


The Belter government convenes a constitutional convention on Vesta, updating laws to accommodate an orderly federal government for the Outer System and guaranteeing Citizen rights in the region.  Kalmar Pact patrol vessels and Theban pirates clash at Ares, downing one pirate landing boat on the world.  After discovering current Libertine equipment in the pirate wreckage, the Pact breaks off diplomatic relations with Libertas.  A Terran General Assembly of Nobles at Reykjavik recognizes Rogar as Emperor of America; it is the first meeting between Rogar and Empress Hanna.  African and Australian emissaries call on both Empires to help provide stability in Europe, the only continent without a united government. 

2718 The Kalmar Pact scout Manatee and its escort contact Hsia, which joins the Pact and provides information on recent pirate activities.  A pirate vessel flees Hsia after detecting the Pact presence.  
2719 Emperor Charles of Mars founds the city of Charleston on the equatorial rim of Pavonis Mons and secures funding for the construction of the Pavonis Obelisk, to stretch one hundred kilometers into the Martian sky.  Libertine pirates raid Daedalus and Reich.


Libertine pirates raid Hsia, capturing the Pact traders Bounty and Wanderlust and destroying the escort Asp.  A mobilization of Pact forces forces Libertas to disavow the pirates' actions.  The Libertine government stands by as a Pact task force again attacks and occupies Thebes, destroying two pirate vessels and executing captured pirate leaders.  The Theban Nobility refuse to join the Pact, but do allow the stationing of a squadron in system to discourage returning pirates.  Daedalus joins the Pact after its leaders agree on a confederate government and the need for protection against pirate depredations.  The Kalmar Pact begins construction of a fleet of six 30m armed scouts to replace its aging fleet.  Anti-Australian agitation begins in the Indonesian archipelago and on some South Pacific islands.


The Martian Parliament vetoes the Emperor's attempt to move the seat of government to Charleston, but funds construction on the Pavonis Obelisk.  The Kalmar Pact scout Orca contacts the twin worlds of Romulus and Remus, who join the Pact.  Duke Harold of Wessex conquers London and assumes the vacant throne as the King of England, receiving support from the Welsh Nobility, but starting the War of Britain when the Scottish Nobility unite under the banner of the Duke of Edinburgh.  Hachiman builds and tests a prototype macrojump starship, the 30m Yamamoto, and quickly follows with production of a dozen 40m armed troopships.

2722 Captain Hiroshi dies on Hachiman, naming Hideki Tanaka his successor.  Tanaka names himself Fleet Admiral and prepares his world for a campaign of conquest.  The Yamamoto secretly scouts Heaven.


The first of the new Kalmar Pact scout vessels, Virgo, enters service.  After the planet Heaven refuses to surrender to the Hachiman First Fleet, Tanaka orders a nuclear bombardment of the world, followed by a Hachiman Marine invasion and occupation that leaves over two million dead. 


Asian Imperial forces occupy New Guinea and Timor and sweep the remainder of the Pacific basin to support a faltering pro-Asian Islander coup, precipitating the Asia-Australian War.  Australia declares war on Asia.  The CAEU imposes economic sanctions on Asia.  The Kalmar Pact scout Boötes and escort Rattlesnake contact Hachiman, resulting in a tense stand-off and the eventual transport of a Hachiman envoy back to Kalmar.  The Pact scout Virgo and escort Cobra encounter a Hachiman navy squadron above Heaven and retreat after the Hachiman forces forbid Pact access to the world.  On its final mission, the Pact scout Manatee contacts the pre-industrial villagers of Demeter and arranges a Pact protectorate of the world.

2725 Libertas quietly begins resupplying the remaining pirate vessels, now operating from two remote bases on marginally habitable worlds.  Asian Marines seize New Zealand and make limited raids on the Northern Territory of Australia.  King Harold narrowly defeats his Scottish enemies at the Battle of Carlisle, but significant resistance continues, supported by the Irish dukes and some French Nobility.


At the invitation of King Harold, the American Empire occupies the British Isles without resistance, ruling through Harold, King of the United Kingdom and guaranteeing rights to the Scottish and Irish Nobility.  Emperor Rogar formalizes feudal self-rule throughout his realm with the Atlanta Constitution.  Asian Imperial Marines invade Australia in full force, seizing Darwin and Brisbane and sweeping into the interior to besiege Alice Springs.  An Australian missiles strike on the Asian mainland is ineffective. The CAEU withdraws its diplomats from Asia.  The last surviving colonists on Frigg perish.


The Kalmar Pact and Hachiman establish formal diplomatic relations and reach an informal agreement with on spheres of influence.  The Hachiman navy re-contacts and  asserts control over the three surviving Eastern enclaves, Honshu, Manchukuo and Formosa.  Asian Imperial forces capture Alice Springs, Sydney and Canberra, marching to Melbourne before the Australian Nobility offers surrender at the gates of the city.  Libertine pirates begin periodic tribute raids on Reich, Tyr and New Rome.

2728 Hachiman scouts visit and lay claim to the failed enclaves of Shikoku, Chosun and Kyushu.  French and Dutch agitators attempt to stir Scotland and Ireland into rebellion against King Harold; American intelligence agents penetrate the agitator network and present evidence to the CAEU and Asian Empire before demanding a cessation of anti-Harold activates by the responsible European states.


King Harold of the United Kingdom dies from an assassin's bomb; in response an American Imperial expeditionary force crosses the English Channel and sweeps to the Rhine, meeting little resistance.  The Asian Empire declares war on America, precipitating the European War and advances from the Urals to the Vistula to defend the independence of the European states; but the Archduchy of Poland petitions for annexation into the America n Empire as the Asian Army captures Warsaw.  The Kalmar Pact scout Lyra and its escort survey the dead colony world of Zimbabwe; the dormant blood plague infects and kills three crew members of the Lyra, which remains in quarantine over Paradise for a full year.  The Pact posts a warning beacon over Zimbabwe and declares it a quarantined protectorate.


After a year of sporadic air and suborbital engagements, Asian and American ground forces clash at the Oder River, but avoid major engagements. The Hachiman Navy attacks the industrial civilization on the world of Han, destroying military centers and occupying major cities with Hachiman marines.  Hachiman begins a decades-long struggle to eradiate resistance in the Southern Islands of Han.  Hachiman scouts survey the failed colony world of Catalonia and lay claim to the planet.  The Kalmar Pact navy begins a second wave of modernization aimed at bringing the entire fleet up to twenty-eighth century standards.  Alimeen colony ships settle Soft Zephyr.


American amphibious forces occupy Hawaii and defeat the Asian Imperial Navy at the Battle of Bikini.  The war stalemates in Europe with neither side willing to fight a major battle, though America occupies Norway and Sweden and Asia occupies Finland.  The CAEU calls for world and interplanetary blockades against both America and Asia, but the Solar powers and the Kalmar Pact refuse to endorse the measure.  The Kalmar Pact scout Centaurus contacts the Muslim colony world of Yathrib, which refuses contact with outsiders.  The Martian macrojump vessel Crimson Sands makes contacts with the Martian-descended colonists on Heimdall, who accept diplomatic contact but refuse an offer to join the Martian Empire.


The Hachiman Second Fleet and marine forces occupy primitive Gothia and crush resistance.  The Hachiman navy establishes an outpost and a small settlement on Shikoku.  American forces liberate New Zealand with ballistic troop landings.  Australia revolts against Asian rule, allowing the entry of American troopships at Sydney.  American forces stop an Asian artic invasion and occupy Greenland and Iceland to guard against a further attack.  The Kalmar Pact Planetary Congress approves a censure of Hachiman, but the Pact navy takes no action, other than stationing spy vessels in Hachiman systems.


Emperor Rogar takes personal command of his European armies, defeating the Asians at the Battle of Prague in the spring, and leading a penetrating force to the Volga, defeating the Asian Second Imperial Battle Army at the Battle of Kazan then driving toward the Ural Mountains in a fall offensive.  In Byzantium, Empress Hanna agrees to an armistice based on current positions, giving Rogar control of geographic Europe and evacuating all Asian forces from the Australian mainland.  Over Atlantian objections, the Kalmar Pact signs a friendship treaty with Venus, angering Mars.


The Hachiman Second Fleet seizes control of the colony world of Ch'in.  Tanaka proclaims the Hachiman Empire and becomes Emperor Hideki.  The Kalmar Pact recognizes Hachiman's current conquests and territorial claims after it receives Tanaka's assurances of no further conquests and humanitarian treatment for subject populations.  Hachiman begins the resettlement of the worlds of Chosun and Kyushu.  Australia formally joins the American Empire.


The American and Asian Empires conclude the Peace of Byzantium, based on the earlier armistice, and agree to cooperate internationally.  Ambassadors from the CAEU attend the peace conference and drop sanctions against the two Empires.  A drought begins in Northern Africa.  The Hachiman Empire begins the resettlement of Catalonia.

2736 The Kalmar Pact scout Hercules re-contacts the world of Enlightenment, which agrees to Pact membership after ensuring religions freedoms.  Emperor Charles of Mars opens the completed Pavonis Obelisk to the public.  The Kalmar Pact scout Aquarius contacts Heimdall, which declines an offer to join the Pact.


A joint American-Asian security force occupies the city of Tunis after food riots kill thousands, including a few American and Asian citizens.


American-Asian troops occupy northern Egypt after minor border incidents on the Sinai border of Asian Palestine and a riot against Asian rule in Mecca.  A Moslem suicide squad kills Prince Consort Vladimir in Beijing.  The Kalmar Pact scout Lyra contacts the world of Thoth; its philosopher rulers show no interest in Pact membership, but offer to trade their mystical knowledge for working technology.


Emperor Rogar marries Empress Hanna in a Byzantium ceremony.  Joint American-Asian forces cross the Sahara in punitive raids against Moslem cities. The CAEU declares war on America and Asia, beginning the African War but many southern African states maintain effective neutrality.  The American Navy blockades the West African coast while Asian Marines occupy East African coastal cities.


The CAEU agrees to the formation of the Terran Empire under Rogar and Hanna.  The Emperor and Empress crown themselves in Byzantium.  The Terran Empire confirms the Atlanta Constitution and its feudal guarantees, but adopts the Asian Imperial economic and bureaucratic model created by Emperor James Hu.


Emperor Rogar establishes the Terran Imperial Navy with surplus eight Martian warships and begins a major shipbuilding program.


Paulus Reornan of Atlantis publishes The Future of Mankind, outlining the basic framework of Technologism philosophy with its emphasis on the gradual evolution of humanity with technological assistance.  The Kalmar Pact scout Centaurus contacts the Pagan settlers of Hectate who vote to join the Pact.


The Belt and Luna, aided by Venusian "volunteers", attack Mars over a disputed mining operation in the Martian Trojans.  The System War begins. The Terran Empire sends it nascent fleet to join the Martian cause, fighting at the Battle of Phobos.  Empress Hanna travels to Venus to convince the Emperor and Parliament to remain neutral and recall its "volunteer" forces.  Rogar authorizes the formation of Terran Imperial Marines, who see action on a raid on three Lunar NEAR settlements at Terra/Luna L5.


Terran and Martian naval forces scatter the Belter fleet at the running Battle of the Trailing Martian Trojans. The Treaty of Ishtar City ends the Systems War and acknowledges Terran dominance of Solar affairs.  The Kalmar Pact scout Aquarius contacts the world of Hera, which gladly joins the Pact.


The Lunar Republic voluntarily joins the Terran Empire as an Autonomous Kingdom.  The Martian Empire annexes the Outer System despite Belter and Venusian diplomatic resistance.  Scattered resistance to Martian rule in the Jupiter system and the Kuiper Belt ends when support is not forthcoming.  The Kalmar Pact scout Hercules contacts the struggling colony on Amazonia, which joins the Pact.

2746 Emperor Charles of Mars dissolves the Parliament and rules by decree.  The Hachiman Empire enters a "voluntary union" with Champa, stationing thousands of marines at key installations; the Kalmar Pact protests the move, but Atlantian reservations scuttle any military response.  The Terran Imperial Navy completes its first interstellar vessel, the 40m frigate Hammer; a major macrojump shipbuilding effort begins with two cruisers and five more frigates authorized.
2747 The Terran Imperial Army puts down a major revolt by Muslims in Arabia.  The Terran Emperor and Empress travel to Jerusalem to sign a decree promising religious freedom and tolerance throughout the Empire, but promising no tolerance for any religious violence or bigotry.  During a pirate tribute raid on Reich, the local populace detonates a nuclear device, destroying the city of Danzig and killing thousands of natives, but also destroying both pirate vessels. 


The Atlantian firm Chiron BioSolutions, Ltd. begins offering Zenith regeneration therapy to Pact customers.  The Hachiman navy intercepts a ship of Herculean volunteers bound for Han and returns them to their homeworld, downplaying the incident.  The Pact scout Virgo surveys the failed colony world of Poseidon, which is placed under a Pact protectorate.  Libertine pirates raid Tyr, killing Lord Governor Attila Timmins. 


Empress Hanna conceives Robert Farrar by artificial means. The infant becomes heir to the Terran Empire.  Emperor Rogar's natural sons Alexander and Arnam become Kings of North and South America, respectively.  The Kalmar Pact scout Lyra attempts contact with Tyr, but sustains damage from missile fire and is unable to establish a dialogue with the populace.

2750 The Kalmar Pact scout Hercules contacts the Mechanists on Karinsky, who gladly join the Pact.  The Hercules crew speaks to the personality of Pavel Karinsky himself.
2751 The Terran Imperial Army puts down a revolt by Australian colonists in Wilkesland with minimal loss of life. The Kalmar Pact scout Boötes contacts the colony of Icarus; the local leadership forms a confederate government to qualify for Pact membership.


Terra and Venus sign the Treaty of Kepler, a non-aggression and trade agreement.  Terran and Mars complete the Emperor's Protocol, a formal personal alliance between Emperors Rogar and Charles.  The Kalmar Pact scout Virgo contacts the barely industrial colony world of Khalistan, which accepts Pact membership.  The Pact trader Bohemian Dream vanishes out of Paradise; piracy is suspected.


The Vulcan government accuses Libertas of continuing to tolerate pirate attacks on Pact vessels and outposts, but fails to adequately prove its case before the Pact Advisory Council, though the Planetary Congress passes a vague condemnation of piracy that does not name Libertas.  Vulcan-sponsored terrorist attacks begin against Libertine installations on UV Ceti, Amaterasu and Aeneas.

2754 The Pact scout Centaurus contacts the pre-industrial inhabitants of the colony moon of Khronos, who accept a Pact protectorate.  Vulcan terrorist strike in the Libertine capital of Freehaven, destroying a police station and killing a dozen bystanders.


Paradise adopts an anti-Libertine stance in Pact proceedings after Libertas accuses it of harboring Vulcan terrorists and conducts threatening military maneuvers in the outer Chara system.


Empress Hanna of Terra gives birth to James Farrar after artificial conception; James becomes King of Africa, a position whose creation causes some unrest among African Nobles.  The Libertine ambassador to the Kalmar Pact dies in a aircar bombing on Kalmar; Libertas blames Vulcan terrorists and besieges Epsilon Eridani.  The Second Libertine War begins as the Pact declares war on Libertas.  Slow to mobilize, the Pact navy braves the Libertine blockade to provide supplies to Vulcan but takes no offensive action and Vulcan falls after two months.  The Kalmar Pact patrol frigate Kuiper contacts the colony of Islam, which fires ballistic missiles at the vessel.

2757 Atlantian, Kalmaran and Herculean forces begin commerce raiding against Libertine vessels.  Libertas issues letters of marque to all private vessels and unrestricted piracy spreads throughout re-contacted space.  The Kalmar Pact First Battle Fleet forms under Atlantian Admiral Lady Jenna Gallagher and jumps to Vulcan, fighting the indecisive Battle of Point Gamma, before withdrawing to Atlantis.  Venus declares its neutrality in the war and attempts mediation through the personal efforts of Emperor Joseph II.  A Kalmar Pact patrol by the frigate Halley discovers the failed colony on Kurdistan.


The Libertine Union formally annexes Vulcan after securing the system from blockade runners and pours 20,000 troops onto the world.  A Kalmar Pact raider fleet under the command of Commodore Lord Olav Kamarov defeats the Libertas Colonial fleet at the Battle of Aeneas.  The Terran Imperial Guard Special Service Branch is established to conduct operations against disloyal Nobles, specifically agitators against the toddler King of Africa.  The Terran Imperial Navy authorizes the construction of four additional frigates and six 40m troopships.


A second Pact attempt to invade Vulcan falters when Libertine raiders attack the mustering fleet at the Battle of Atlantis, destroying the cruiser Singh and killing Admiral Gallagher.  The Kalmar Pact Third Fleet, under Commodore Kamarov destroys two pirate vessels raiding New Palestine and offers the world membership in the Pact; Kamarov receives a formal censure from the Planetary Congress for this action after the war, as the pre-industrial planet technically should only have been offered a protectorate.


Queen Katrina appoints Olav Kamarov Admiral of the Kalmar Pact First Fleet.  The First Fleet jumps to Vulcan and wins several engagements, cumulating in the orbital Battle of Vulcan.  The Pact fleet maintains an orbital blockade, refraining from retaking the surface, fearing severe ground casualties.  Libertine raiders continue to harass the Pact fleet from the outer Epsilon Eridani system.  Piracy spreads to the Solar System with attacks on shipping in the Belt.


In response to pirate attacks on commercial shipping, Terra enters the war against Libertas, winning the Battle of Amaterasu and freeing the world of Libertine domination with an Imperial Marine orbital assault.  A Libertine counterattack on Vulcan falters at the the Battle of August Twenty-second.  The Kalmar Pact Third Fleet, commanded by Herculean Admiral Kevin O'Connor besieges Aeneas.  Atlantian Admiral Lord Samuel Cohen leads the Pact Second Fleet to Libertas, but withdraws without an engagement.


The Second Libertine War ends with the Treaty of Ishtar City wherein Libertas agrees to surrender Vulcan and end all piracy in return for an end to terrorism and a protectorate over a semi-autonomous Amaterasu.  Terran Imperial Marines evacuate Amaterasu though Emperor Rogar publicly expresses his displeasure at the treaty terms.  Libertine troops evacuate Vulcan in good order, though Vulcan guerillas destroy one troopship on the ground, killing several hundred Libertine and Aenean soldiers.  The Atlantian Kalmar Pact advisor, Prince Mark, resigns in protest after the council rebukes Kamarov but lets him retain his rank, while forcing Cohen to retire for cowardice.  The Pact scout Centaurus performs a full survey of the failed colony on Kurdistan.


The Second Mercury War begins when Mars, with Terran backing, attacks Venus to regain its rights to Mercury; the Terran Imperial Navy besieges Venus, while Martian naval and marines forces attack Mercury, defeating the Venusan protective force at the Battle of Mercury High.  The Kalmar Pact scout Aquarius contacts the worlds Pyramus and Thisbe, which have maintained industrial civilizations and radio contact throughout the Dark Age; both worlds receive Pact membership.


Martian ground forces win the Southern Mercury Campaign but prove unable to dislodge the Venusians from northern Mercury.  Venusian squadrons fail to break the Terran siege of their homeworld. The Kalmar Pact and Libertas both declare neutrality in the Mercury conflict and Queen Katrina offers personal mediation.


The Terran Imperial Navy conducts orbital bombardments on Venusian cities, causing heavy civilian casualties. Venus agrees to cede Mercury and evacuates its troops from Gupta Station, ending the Mercury War.  The last survivors of the colony on Perseus die.


Atlantis withdraws from the Kalmar Pact ostensibly over a tariff dispute, but really over leadership issues with Queen Katrina.  Terra and the Kalmar Pact verbally renounce the Treaty of Ishtar City after a pirate attack destroys the Pact trader Narvik, but take no action against Libertine positions.  Libertas tightens controls on Amaterasu, appointing a new puppet government under Lord Ato Tul. 


Atlantis recognizes the new government on Amaterasu.  The Atlantian Royal Navy undergoes a massive shipbuilding program, aiming to produce three cruisers and six additional frigates.  Libertas openly occupies Thebes, allowing "outworld" vessels, or pirates to use facilities on the planet.

2768 Terra and the Kalmar Pact begin joint anti-piracy patrols. The Terran Planetary defense grid intercepts and destroys a fifty meter asteroid bound for southern Africa.  The Kalmar Pact scout Hercules discovers the failed colony of Salvation.


A revolt in Ukraine starts a general insurrection in southeast Europe, requiring two Terran Imperial Armies to occupy cities from Kiev to Bucharest.  Hachiman occupies the colony world Teutonia after the bombing of a Hachiman trading expedition and thousands die in Hachiman retaliatory attacks. The Kalmar Pact protests Hachiman aggression, but takes no action, despite Herculean objections and a subsequent walk-out of the Planetary Congress by Hercules, Apollo and Vulcan.


Libertas takes advantage of the weakened Pact position by attacking and occupying Eden in support of Prince Tomas, a claimant for the Edan throne.  The Third Libertine War begins as the Kalmar Pact settles its differences and declares war on Libertas.


Avoiding major fleet actions, Pact and Libertine navies fight only minor skirmishes in remote systems and the war quickly reverts to uncontrolled piracy in outlying space.  Libertas occupies Pact facilities on Amazonia, Poseidon, Mithras and Hebe.  In return for promised immunity from Libertine pirate attacks, both Atlantis and Terra decline to enter the war on the Pact side.  The Kalmar Pact Third Fleet contacts the colony on Elysium, offering it Pact membership and protection.  The Pact patrol frigate Nessus destroys a pirate vessel and discovers its base at the failed colony of Pruessen.

2772 Terran Imperial military and special service forces eradicate the rebellion in southeast Europe.  The Kalmar Pact First Fleet, under Admiral Kamarov defeats the Libertas Second Fleet at the Battle of New Palestine.  The Pact Third Fleet under Admiral O'Conner bombards Thebes, destroying several pirate vessels.  The Kalmar Pact scout Boötes and its escort Anaconda contacts the colony of Achilles, which accepts Pact membership.
2773 The Kalmar Pact First Fleet fights the indecisive Battle of Aeneas against a Libertas First Fleet supported by Aenean system defense craft.  A Libertine raid on Vulcan causes severe surface damage and thousands of causalities.


The Third Libertine War ends after Terran mediation produces the Byzantium Protocols.  Libertas agrees to surrender all captured Pact facilities and to end pirate activity in return for a protectorate over Eden and formal annexation of Thebes.  The Kalmar Pact advisory council approves a resolution to replace its aging scout fleet.


Terra and Mars propose a union under the Imperial Banner of Rogar and Hanna, with Crown Prince Robert of Terra marrying Princess Lyra of Mars.  Mars becomes an autonomous Terran Kingdom, though Charles maintains the title of Martian Emperor.  Venus protests the union, especially the incorporation of Mercury and the Outer System as integral Maritan territory and attacks Mercury, beginning the Third Mercury War.  The Belt and the Pact refuse requests to come to Venus's aid.  The Pact scout Virgo discovers the failed colony of Bliss; the fungal blight infects the crew, but the infection is easily treated onboard the vessel.  The Pact puts Bliss under protected quarantine. 


The Belt enters the Third Mercury War against Venus. Terran and Maritan naval forces repulse the Venusian attack on Mercury and besiege Venus, which quickly surrenders as Terran Imperial Marines establish beachheads on Ishtar Terra.  Rogar accepts the crown of the Emperor of Sol in a ceremony in Philadelphia on July 4, with Venus and the Belt joining the Empire as autonomous Kingdoms.


The Belter Nobility elect Athena of Flora as the first rotating ceremonial Belter monarch.  Emperor Rogar forces the remaining independent NEAR colonies to choose Venus or the Belt as their sovereign kingdom, completing the unification of the Solar System.  Sol and Atlantis independently begin introducing robot military troops in special units.  Separate Solar and Kalmaran diplomatic overtures to Atlantis fail to entice the world to end its isolation.  The first updated armed Kalmar Pact scout, Mensa enters service.

2778 The Kalmar Pact scouts Aquila and Indus enter service as the old scout fleet is decommissioned.
2779 The Kalmar Pact scout Aquila contacts the colony world of Bacchus, which joins the Pact as its sixty-second and final member. The Pact scouts Orion and Cancer enter service.


The Imperial Solar Navy begins the secret construction of three Hellkings in Belt shipyards.  The Kalmar Pact scout Leo enters service.  The Pact scout Orion contacts the world of New Rome and learns of continued Libertine pirate activity.  New Rome refuses to join the Pact, but allows the Pact Navy to place a naval outpost on its moon to discourage piracy.  The Pact scout Indus discovers the dead colony world of Purgatory.

2781 The Kalmar Pact patrol frigate Nova and its two escorts destroy three pirate vessels over New Rome, but fail to gather information on their base of operations. 


The Solar Empire abolishes all natural slavery and allows full Citizenship rights to qualifying emancipated Constructs.  Atlantis and Libertas form a secret anti-Pact alliance in a covert meeting at the Libertine base at UV Ceti.


The Atlantian-Libertine Alliance makes secret overtures to the Hachiman Empire concerning the division of Kalmar Pact territory into spheres of influence.  The Pact scout Indus contacts the remaining three villages on Minerva and finds a primitive xenophobic culture that rejects offers of a Pact protectorate.


Libertas, Atlantis and Hachiman formalize the TriWorld Alliance against the Kalmar Pact.  Pirate attacks and Alliance terror raids begin against Pact vessels and installations.  The Hachiman Empire attacks and occupies the Pact survey facility on Asgard, and attacks and conquers the un-contacted colony world of Bolivar.  The Pact War begins.


The Solar Hellkings Apollyn, Azazel and Beelzebub and supporting vessels make a surprise appearance near Atlantis and announce Sol's support for the Pact.  Atlantis quickly withdraws from the Alliance.  The Hachiman Second Fleet destroys the Kalmar Pact naval depot at the Battle of Deseret and besieges the planet, making landings in outlying areas and attacking the urban defense systems.  The Hachiman Third Fleet besieges Prometheus, but withdraws after losing two troopships to ground fire.  The Pact patrol frigate Nessus discovers the failed colony of Franklin, which after four hundred years, leaves hardly a trace.  The Pact scout Mensa and supporting escort Anaconda contact the Aztec colony of Quetzacoatl, but given religious practices, decline to offer it pact membership.


Libertas surrenders to the Solar Hellking fleet.  The Hachiman Imperial Army uses nuclear and biological weapons in an attempt to subdue Deseret, but faces heavy organized and guerilla resistance.  Hachiman raider fleets sweep through Pact space, capturing six outlying outposts and concentrating to besiege both Alimeen and Kalmar.


Alimeen forces drive off the Hachiman Third Fleet.  The Hachiman Fourth Fleet seizes Heimdall.  Solar Imperial Navy reinforcements help Admiral Kamarov defeat the Hachiman First Fleet at the Battle of Kalmar.  After the Apollyon and Azazel arrive in orbit over Hachiman, Emperor Hideki agrees to an immediate ceasefire, evacuates Deseret and Heimdall and agrees to the Treaty of Kalmar, returning all Pact installations in return for recognition of its control of Asgard and Bolivar.  Emperor Rogar begins negotiations for a united human realm.


The Hachiman Imperial Navy re-contacts the extinct colony on Balder and claims and colonizes the planet.  Libertas recognizes Rogar as Emperor in return for strong autonomy guarantees.  The Libertas Union dissolves, with its member world joining the Solar Empire.  Libertas reveals the location of two remote pirate bases, but Imperial Navy raids only capture three vessels and some crew and slaves.  Heimdall accepts Rogar as Emperor.  A small group of remaining pirate vessels seek and receive logistical support from the Hachiman Empire.


The Kalmar Pact scout Leo contacts the colony world of Dionysus, but negotiations on its status falter as the Kalmar Pact formally dissolves, recognizing Rogar I as Emperor of Humanity.  On the first of June, Rogar crowns himself in Byzantium, proclaims the Empire of Humanity and claims all old Confederation territory not occupied by the Hachiman Empire.  Anti-piracy campaigns continue in Imperial Space.  Negotiations on the status of Alimeen and its seven colonies commence on Kalmar.  The Emperor publishes the Imperial Charter on October 10th, signed by Rogar, Hanna, Katrina of Kalmar for the Pact, Joseph II of Venus for the Solar states, King John for Libertas and the Alimeen ambassador to Terra for his race.  Atlantis joins the Empire on December 31st after King Karl travels to Terra to sign the Charter.

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